名前

perldelta - what is new for perl v5.8.0

perldelta - perl v5.8.0での変更点

説明

説明

This document describes differences between the 5.6.0 release and the 5.8.0 release.

このドキュメントではリリース5.6.0とリリース5.8.0間での 相違点が述べられています。

Many of the bug fixes in 5.8.0 were already seen in the 5.6.1 maintenance release since the two releases were kept closely coordinated (while 5.8.0 was still called 5.7.something).

5.8.0に含まれるバグフィックスの多くは、5.6.1というメンテナンスリリース にも既に含まれていました。これら2つのリリースは、(5.8.0がまだ5.7.何番 と呼ばれていた頃には)密接に協調していたためです

Changes that were integrated into the 5.6.1 release are marked [561]. Many of these changes have been further developed since 5.6.1 was released, those are marked [561+].

5.6.1に統合された変更点には、[561]という印を付けてあります。これら の変更点の中には5.6.1のリリース後にさらに開発が進んだものも多いのです が、そういった変更点には[561+]という印を付けておきました。

You can see the list of changes in the 5.6.1 release (both from the 5.005_03 release and the 5.6.0 release) by reading perl561delta.

5.6.1に含まれる変更点一覧については、(5.005_03からの変更も、5.6.0から の変更も含めて)perl561deltaに書いてあります。

Highlights In 5.8.0

5.8.0のハイライト

  • Better Unicode support

    Unicodeサポートの強化

  • New IO Implementation

    新しいIOの実装

  • New Thread Implementation

    新しいスレッドの実装

  • Better Numeric Accuracy

    数値精度の向上

  • Safe Signals

    安全なシグナル

  • Many New Modules

    多くの新しいモジュール

  • More Extensive Regression Testing

    さらに広範囲な回帰テスト

Incompatible Changes

互換性のない変更

Binary Incompatibility

バイナリ非互換

Perl 5.8 is not binary compatible with earlier releases of Perl.

Perl 5.8と以前リリースされたPerlのバイナリには互換性がありません。

You have to recompile your XS modules.

XSモジュールは再コンパイルしなければいけません。

(Pure Perl modules should continue to work.)

(ピュアPerlのモジュールは動作するでしょう。)

The major reason for the discontinuity is the new IO architecture called PerlIO. PerlIO is the default configuration because without it many new features of Perl 5.8 cannot be used. In other words: you just have to recompile your modules containing XS code, sorry about that.

互換性がなくなった主な理由はPerlIOと呼ぶ新しいIOアーキテクチャのためで す。Perl5.8の新しい機能の多くがPerlIOを使用しているので、PerlIOはデフォ ルトで組み込まれます。言い換えれば、残念ですがXSのコードを含んでいるモ ジュールは再コンパイルしなければなりません。

In future releases of Perl, non-PerlIO aware XS modules may become completely unsupported. This shouldn't be too difficult for module authors, however: PerlIO has been designed as a drop-in replacement (at the source code level) for the stdio interface.

PerlIOを意識しないXSモジュールは、将来リリースされるPerlで完全にサポー トされなくなる可能性があります。しかしPerlIOはstdioインターフェイスを (ソースコードレベルで)差し替えるように設計されているので、モジュール作 者へ過度に負担がかかることはないでしょう。

Depending on your platform, there are also other reasons why we decided to break binary compatibility, please read on.

プラットフォームによってはバイナリの互換性を無くした他の理由があるので 読み進めてください。

64-bit platforms and malloc

64ビットプラットフォームとmalloc

If your pointers are 64 bits wide, the Perl malloc is no longer being used because it does not work well with 8-byte pointers. Also, usually the system mallocs on such platforms are much better optimized for such large memory models than the Perl malloc. Some memory-hungry Perl applications like the PDL don't work well with Perl's malloc. Finally, other applications than Perl (such as mod_perl) tend to prefer the system malloc. Such platforms include Alpha and 64-bit HPPA, MIPS, PPC, and Sparc.

もしポインタが64ビット幅であれば、Perlのmallocが使われることはもうない でしょう。なぜならそれは8バイトのポインタでは上手く動かないからです。ま た、通常そのようなプラットフォームでは、システムのmallocはそのような大 きなメモリモデルにおいてPerlのmallocよりもっと良い最適化がなされていま す。PDLのようなメモリハングリーなPerlアプリケーションの中にはPerlの mallocでは上手く動かないものもあります。最後に、Perl以外のアプリケーシ ョン(例えばmod_perl)はシステムのmallocを好む傾向があります。そのような プラットフォームにはAlpha, 64-bit HPPA, MIPS, PPC, Sparcなどがあります。

AIX Dynaloading

AIXのダイナミックローディング

The AIX dynaloading now uses in AIX releases 4.3 and newer the native dlopen interface of AIX instead of the old emulated interface. This change will probably break backward compatibility with compiled modules. The change was made to make Perl more compliant with other applications like mod_perl which are using the AIX native interface.

AIXリリース4.3またはそれ以降においてAIXのダイナミックローディングは以前 のエミュレートされたインターフェースではなくAIXのネイティブdlopenインタ ーフェースを使うようになりました。この変更はおそらくコンパイルされたモ ジュールの後方互換性を破壊するでしょう。この変更は、AIXのネイティブイン ターフェースを使っているmod_perlのような他のアプリケーションに、Perlを より従わせるためになされました。

Attributes for my variables now handled at run-time.

実行時にハンドリングする my 変数の属性

The my EXPR : ATTRS syntax now applies variable attributes at run-time. (Subroutine and our variables still get attributes applied at compile-time.) See attributes for additional details. In particular, however, this allows variable attributes to be useful for tie interfaces, which was a deficiency of earlier releases. Note that the new semantics doesn't work with the Attribute::Handlers module (as of version 0.76).

my EXPR : ATTRS 構文は実行時に変数の属性を適用するようになりました。 (サブルーチンおよび our 変数はいまだコンパイル時に属性を適用させます 。)より詳しくは attributes を参照してください。しかし、これは特に tie インターフェースにとって変数の属性を役立たせます。それは初期のリ リースでは不足していたことです。新しいセマンティクスは Attribute::Handlersモジュール(のバージョン0.76)では動かないことに注意し てください。

Socket Extension Dynamic in VMS

VMSでの動的Socket拡張

The Socket extension is now dynamically loaded instead of being statically built in. This may or may not be a problem with ancient TCP/IP stacks of VMS: we do not know since we weren't able to test Perl in such configurations.

Socket拡張は静的に組み込まれているのではなく動的にロードされるようにな りました。これは古いVMSのTCP/IPスタックでは問題になるかもしれませんしな らないかもしれません。Perlをそのような環境でテストすることができなかっ たので分からないのです。

IEEE-format Floating Point Default on OpenVMS Alpha

OpenVMS AlphaでのIEEEフォーマットの浮動小数点

Perl now uses IEEE format (T_FLOAT) as the default internal floating point format on OpenVMS Alpha, potentially breaking binary compatibility with external libraries or existing data. G_FLOAT is still available as a configuration option. The default on VAX (D_FLOAT) has not changed.

PerlはIEEEフォーマット(T_FLOAT)をOpenVMS Alphaでのデフォルトの内部の 浮動小数点フォーマットとして使うようになりました。これは潜在的に外部ラ イブラリや既存データのバイナリ互換性を破壊します。G_FLOATはいまだ設定の オプションとして利用可能です。VAX (D_FLOAT)でのデフォルトは変更されて いません。

New Unicode Properties

新しいUnicodeプロパティ

Unicode scripts are now supported. Scripts are similar to (and superior to) Unicode blocks. The difference between scripts and blocks is that scripts are the glyphs used by a language or a group of languages, while the blocks are more artificial groupings of (mostly) 256 characters based on the Unicode numbering.

Unicode スクリプト が新たにサポートされました。スクリプトというのは、 Unicode ブロック のようなものですが、それより上位のものです。スクリ プトとブロックの違いは、スクリプトが単一の言語または一群の言語により使 用されるグリフであるのに対して、ブロックというのはUnicodeの番号付けに 基づく(高々)256文字の人工的なグルーピングでしかないということです。

In general, scripts are more inclusive, but not universally so. For example, while the script Latin includes all the Latin characters and their various diacritic-adorned versions, it does not include the various punctuation or digits (since they are not solely Latin).

一般的にはスクリプトのほうがより多くの文字を含みますが、あらゆる場合に そうである訳ではありません。例えば、Latinスクリプトは全てのLatin 文 字といろいろな発音記号付きの文字を含みますが、いろいろな句読点や数字は 含みません(それらはLatinだけに属するわけではないので)。

A number of other properties are now supported, including \p{L&}, \p{Any} \p{Assigned}, \p{Unassigned}, \p{Blank} [561] and \p{SpacePerl} [561] (along with their \P{...} versions, of course). See perlunicode for details, and more additions.

他にもいくつかのプロパティが、新たにサポートされました。\p{L&}, \p{Any} \p{Assigned}, \p{Unassigned}, \p{Blank} [561], \p{SpacePerl} [561] などです (もちろん \P{...} も)。詳しくは、 perlunicode をお読みください。

The In or Is prefix to names used with the \p{...} and \P{...} are now almost always optional. The only exception is that a In prefix is required to signify a Unicode block when a block name conflicts with a script name. For example, \p{Tibetan} refers to the script, while \p{InTibetan} refers to the block. When there is no name conflict, you can omit the In from the block name (e.g. \p{BraillePatterns}), but to be safe, it's probably best to always use the In).

\p{...}\P{...} と共に使われる名前に付けるプレフィックス InIs は、ほとんどの場合省略できることになりました。唯一の例 外は、ブロック名がスクリプト名と競合する場合です。その場合には、 Unicode ブロック名にプレフィックス In を付けて区別しなければなりま せん。例えば、\p{Tibetan}はスクリプトを参照しますが、 \p{InTibetan}はブロックを参照します。名前の競合がない場合には、ブロッ ク名のInは省略できます(例:\p{BraillePatterns})が、安全のために は、いつもInを使うのがたぶん良いでしょう。

REF(...) Instead Of SCALAR(...)

SCALAR(...)のかわりにREF(...)

A reference to a reference now stringifies as "REF(0x81485ec)" instead of "SCALAR(0x81485ec)" in order to be more consistent with the return value of ref().

リファレンスへのリファレンスは、ref() の返り値をより一貫したものにする ために、"SCALAR(0x81485ec)"のかわりに"REF(0x81485ec)"のように文字列化さ れるようになりました。

pack/unpack D/F recycled

pack/unpackのD/Fを再利用

The undocumented pack/unpack template letters D/F have been recycled for better use: now they stand for long double (if supported by the platform) and NV (Perl internal floating point type). (They used to be aliases for d/f, but you never knew that.)

文書化されていなかったpack/unpackのテンプレートの文字D/Fはよりよい用途 のために再利用されました。現在これらはlong double(もしプラットフォーム によってサポートされていれば)と?V(Perlの内部浮動小数点型)を意味しま す。(これらは以前はd/fの別名でしたが、皆さんは知らなかったでしょう。)

Deprecations

非推奨事項

  • The semantics of bless(REF, REF) were unclear and until someone proves it to make some sense, it is forbidden.

    bless(REF, REF)の意味は不明瞭なので、誰かがなんらかの意味をなすことを 証明するまでは禁止とします。

  • The obsolete chat2 library that should never have been allowed to escape the laboratory has been decommissioned.

    実験室から逃れることが決して許されなかったはずの廃れたchat2ライブラリが 任務を解かれました。

  • The builtin dump() function has probably outlived most of its usefulness. The core-dumping functionality will remain in future available as an explicit call to CORE::dump(), but in future releases the behaviour of an unqualified dump() call may change.

    組み込み関数dump()は時代の流れにしたがって大半の有用性が失われて 来ました。コアダンプの関数は明示的にCORE::dump()を呼び出すことが 可能になっても残ることでしょうが、将来のリリースでは無条件にdump()を 呼び出した際、そのふるまいが変更されるかも知れません。

  • The very dusty examples in the eg/ directory have been removed. Suggestions for new shiny examples welcome but the main issue is that the examples need to be documented, tested and (most importantly) maintained.

    eg/ディレクトリに入っているつまらない例は削除されました。おもしろい例を 提案することは歓迎しますが、主となる問題は例はドキュメントが書かれること、 及びテストされることと(一番大切なことですが)保守が必要だと言うことです。

  • The (bogus) escape sequences \8 and \9 now give an optional warning ("Unrecognized escape passed through"). There is no need to \-escape any \w character.

    (偽の)エスケープシーケンス\8と\9はオプショナルの警告("Unrecognized escape passed through") を与えるようになりました。どの \w 文字も \-escapeする必要はありません。

  • The list of filenames from glob() (or <...>) is now by default sorted alphabetically to be csh-compliant (which is what happened before in most UNIX platforms). (bsd_glob() does still sort platform natively, ASCII or EBCDIC, unless GLOB_ALPHASORT is specified.) [561]

    glob() (あるいは<...>)から得られるファイル名のリストは、cshに従ってデフ ォルトでアルファベット順にソートされるようになりました(これは大部分の UNIXプラットフォームで以前に起こったことです)。(bsd_glob()は、 GLOB_ALPHASORTが指定されなければ、いまだプラットフォーム依存でASCII順ま たはEBCDIC順でソートします。) [561]

  • Spurious syntax errors generated in certain situations, when glob() caused File::Glob to be loaded for the first time, have been fixed. [561]

    glob()が最初にFile::Globをロードさせる要因となるという状況で、誤った構 文エラーが生成されることが修正されました。[561]

  • Although "you shouldn't do that", it was possible to write code that depends on Perl's hashed key order (Data::Dumper does this). The new algorithm "One-at-a-Time" produces a different hashed key order. More details are in "Performance Enhancements".

    "すべきではない"のですが、Perlのハッシュキーの順序に依存したコードを書 くことが可能でした(Data::Dumperが行っています)。新しいアルゴリズムであ る"One-at-a-Time"では違ったハッシュキーの順序になります。より詳しくは "Performance Enhancements" にあります。

  • lstat(FILEHANDLE) now gives a warning because the operation makes no sense. In future releases this may become a fatal error.

    lstat(FILEHANDLE)という操作は意味を成さないので警告を出すようになりまし た。将来のリリースでは致命的エラーになるかもしれません。

  • The package; syntax (package without an argument) has been deprecated. Its semantics were never that clear and its implementation even less so. If you have used that feature to disallow all but fully qualified variables, use strict; instead.

    package; 構文(引数のない package)は非推奨になりました。そのセマン ティクスは明瞭でなく、その実装はさらに明瞭ではありませんでした。もしこ の特徴をfully qualified variablesでないものを全て許さないために使ってい るのであれば、かわりに use strict; を使ってください。

  • The unimplemented POSIX regex features [[.cc.]] and [[=c=]] are still recognised but now cause fatal errors. The previous behaviour of ignoring them by default and warning if requested was unacceptable since it, in a way, falsely promised that the features could be used.

    実装されていないPOSIX正規表現の機能[[.cc.]]と[[=c=]]は、いまだ認識され ますが致命的エラーを出すようになりました。デフォルトで無視し要求があれ ば警告を出すという以前の動作は、ある意味ではその機能が使えていたと誤っ て思わせていたため、歓迎しがたいものでした。

  • In future releases, non-PerlIO aware XS modules may become completely unsupported. Since PerlIO is a drop-in replacement for stdio at the source code level, this shouldn't be that drastic a change.

    PerlIOを意識しないXSモジュールは、将来リリースされるPerlで完全にサポー トされなくなる可能性があります。PerlIOはソースコードレベルではstdioのち ょっとした置き換えでしかないので、これはそれほど大変な変更にはならない はずです。

  • Previous versions of perl and some readings of some sections of Camel III implied that the :raw "discipline" was the inverse of :crlf. Turning off "clrfness" is no longer enough to make a stream truly binary. So the PerlIO :raw layer (or "discipline", to use the Camel book's older terminology) is now formally defined as being equivalent to binmode(FH) - which is in turn defined as doing whatever is necessary to pass each byte as-is without any translation. In particular binmode(FH) - and hence :raw - will now turn off both CRLF and UTF-8 translation and remove other layers (e.g. :encoding()) which would modify byte stream.

  • The current user-visible implementation of pseudo-hashes (the weird use of the first array element) is deprecated starting from Perl 5.8.0 and will be removed in Perl 5.10.0, and the feature will be implemented differently. Not only is the current interface rather ugly, but the current implementation slows down normal array and hash use quite noticeably. The fields pragma interface will remain available. The restricted hashes interface is expected to be the replacement interface (see Hash::Util). If your existing programs depends on the underlying implementation, consider using Class::PseudoHash from CPAN.

    現在のpseudo-hashesのユーザに見える実装(配列の先頭要素のおかしな使い方) は、Perl 5.8.0から非推奨になり、Perl 5.10.0で取り除かれ、その機能は違っ た形で実装されるでしょう。現在のインターフェースはかなり醜いだけでなく、 現在の実装では通常の配列やハッシュの使用がかなり目立って遅くなってしま います。fields プラグマのインターフェースは利用可能なまま残るでしょ う。restricted hashes のインターフェースは代用のインターフェース (Hash::Util を参照してください)になると考えられています。もし既存の プログラムが根底にある実装に依存しているのであれば、CPANの Class::PseudoHashを使うことを考慮してください。

  • The syntaxes @a->[...] and %h->{...} have now been deprecated.

    構文@a->[...]%h->{...}は非推奨になりました。

  • After years of trying, suidperl is considered to be too complex to ever be considered truly secure. The suidperl functionality is likely to be removed in a future release.

    数年の試みの後、suidperlは本当に安全であると見なすには複雑になりすぎて いると考えられています。おそらくsuidperlの機能は将来のリリースで取り除 かれるでしょう。

  • The 5.005 threads model (module Thread) is deprecated and expected to be removed in Perl 5.10. Multithreaded code should be migrated to the new ithreads model (see threads, threads::shared and perlthrtut).

    5.005のスレッドモデル(モジュール Thread)は非推奨となり、Perl 5.10で 取り除かれる予定です。マルチスレッド化されたコードは新しいithreadモデル に移るべきです(threads, threads::shared, perlthrtutを参照して ください)。

  • The long deprecated uppercase aliases for the string comparison operators (EQ, NE, LT, LE, GE, GT) have now been removed.

    長い間非推奨であった文字列比較演算子の大文字の別名(EQ, NE, LT, LE, GE, GT)が取り除かれました。

  • The tr///C and tr///U features have been removed and will not return; the interface was a mistake. Sorry about that. For similar functionality, see pack('U0', ...) and pack('C0', ...). [561]

    tr///Cとtr///Uの機能が取り除かれました。もう二度と使えるようにはならな いでしょう。インターフェースが間違っていました。これについては申し訳あ りません。同じような機能としては、pack('U0', ...)とpack('C0', ...)を参 照してください。[561]

  • Earlier Perls treated "sub foo (@bar)" as equivalent to "sub foo (@)". The prototypes are now checked better at compile-time for invalid syntax. An optional warning is generated ("Illegal character in prototype...") but this may be upgraded to a fatal error in a future release.

    以前のPerlは"sub foo (@bar)"を"sub foo (@)"と同等に扱っていました。プロ トタイプは不正な構文についてコンパイル時によりよくチェックするようにな りました。オプショナルの警告("Illegal character in prototype...")が出さ れますが、将来のリリースでは致命的エラーに上がるかもしれません。

  • The exec LIST and system LIST operations will produce fatal errors on tainted data in some future release.

    exec LISTsystem LISTの操作は、将来のリリースでは汚染されたデー タに対して致命的エラーを出すようになるでしょう。

  • The existing behaviour when localising tied arrays and hashes is wrong, and will be changed in a future release, so do not rely on the existing behaviour. See "Localising Tied Arrays and Hashes Is Broken".

    tieされた配列やハッシュをlocal化するときの現在の動作は間違っており、将 来のリリースにおいて変更されるでしょう。従って現在の動作を頼らないでく ださい。"Localising Tied Arrays and Hashes Is Broken" を参照してくだ さい。

Core Enhancements

コアの拡張

PerlIO is Now The Default

PerlIOが標準に

  • IO is now by default done via PerlIO rather than system's "stdio". PerlIO allows "layers" to be "pushed" onto a file handle to alter the handle's behaviour. Layers can be specified at open time via 3-arg form of open:

    システムの"stdio"ではなくPerlIOがIOのデフォルトにになりました。PerlIOは"レイヤー"によってファイルハンドルの振る舞いを"強制"することを可能にしました。レイヤーは3つの引数の形式でopenする時に指定できます:

       open($fh,'>:crlf :utf8', $path) || ...

    or on already opened handles via extended binmode:

    もしくは拡張されたbinmode を使い、既に開かれているハンドルにレイヤーを指定できます。

       binmode($fh,':encoding(iso-8859-7)');

    The built-in layers are: unix (low level read/write), stdio (as in previous Perls), perlio (re-implementation of stdio buffering in a portable manner), crlf (does CRLF <=> "\n" translation as on Win32, but available on any platform). A mmap layer may be available if platform supports it (mostly UNIXes).

    内蔵してるレイヤーは、unix(低レベルでのread/write)、stdio (以前のPerlと同じ)、perlio (ポータブルにバッファ付きstdioを再実装するためのマナー)、crlf (Win32での CRLF <=> "\n" 変換。他のプラットフォームでも利用できる)があります。(大部分のUNIXなど)プラットフォームがサポートしていればmmapレイヤーが使用できます。

    Layers to be applied by default may be specified via the 'open' pragma.

    デフォルトで適用されるレイヤーは 'open'プラグマで指定されるかもしれません。

    See "Installation and Configuration Improvements" for the effects of PerlIO on your architecture name.

    アーキテクチャごとのPerlIOに関する影響について "Installation and Configuration Improvements" を参照してください。

  • If your platform supports fork(), you can use the list form of open for pipes. For example:

    もしプラットフォームがfork()をサポートしていれば、パイプに対してリスト 形式の open を使うことができます。例えば:

        open KID_PS, "-|", "ps", "aux" or die $!;

    forks the ps(1) command (without spawning a shell, as there are more than three arguments to open()), and reads its standard output via the KID_PS filehandle. See perlipc.

    これはps(1)コマンドを(open()に対して引数が3つよりも多いので、シェルを起 動することなしに)forkし、その標準出力を KID_PS ファイルハンドルを通 して読み出します。perlipc を参照してください。

  • File handles can be marked as accepting Perl's internal encoding of Unicode (UTF-8 or UTF-EBCDIC depending on platform) by a pseudo layer ":utf8" :

       open($fh,">:utf8","Uni.txt");

    Note for EBCDIC users: the pseudo layer ":utf8" is erroneously named for you since it's not UTF-8 what you will be getting but instead UTF-EBCDIC. See perlunicode, utf8, and http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/ for more information. In future releases this naming may change. See perluniintro for more information about UTF-8.

  • If your environment variables (LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG, LANGUAGE) look like you want to use UTF-8 (any of the the variables match /utf-?8/i), your STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR handles and the default open layer (see open) are marked as UTF-8. (This feature, like other new features that combine Unicode and I/O, work only if you are using PerlIO, but that's the default.)

    もし環境変数(LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG, LANGUAGE)がUTF-8を使いたがっている ように見える(それらの変数のいずれかが /utf-?8/i にマッチする)ならば、 ハンドルSTDIN, STDOUT, STDERRおよびデフォルトのopenレイヤー(open を 参照してください)はUTF-8にマークされます。(この機能は、UnicodeとI/Oを結 びつける他の新機能と同じように、PerlIOを使っている場合にのみ働きますが、 しかしそれがデフォルトです。)

    Note that after this Perl really does assume that everything is UTF-8: for example if some input handle is not, Perl will probably very soon complain about the input data like this "Malformed UTF-8 ..." since any old eight-bit data is not legal UTF-8.

    このPerl以降は本当に全てをUTF-8だと仮定することに注意してください。例え ば、もしそうでない入力ハンドルがあれば、Perlはおそらくすぐに入力データ について"Malformed UTF-8 ..."というように不平を言い出します。なぜなら以 前の8ビットのデータは全てUTF-8を満たしていないからです。

    Note for code authors: if you want to enable your users to use UTF-8 as their default encoding but in your code still have eight-bit I/O streams (such as images or zip files), you need to explicitly open() or binmode() with :bytes (see "open" in perlfunc and "binmode" in perlfunc), or you can just use binmode(FH) (nice for pre-5.8.0 backward compatibility).

    コード作者に対する注意。ユーザがUTF-8をデフォルトのエンコーディングとし て使えるようにしたいが、コードにはいまだ(例えば画像やzipファイルのよう な)8ビットのI/Oストリームがある場合、open()やbinmode()に対して明示的に :bytes ("open" in perlfunc"binmode" in perlfunc を参照してください) をつけるか、あるいは単にbinmode(FH)を使うことができます (5.8.0以前の 後方互換性にとって良いでしょう)。

  • File handles can translate character encodings from/to Perl's internal Unicode form on read/write via the ":encoding()" layer.

    ファイルハンドルは読み書きの際":encoding()"レイヤ経由でPerlの内部的な Unicode形式に、あるいは内部的なUnicode形式から変換することが可能です。

  • File handles can be opened to "in memory" files held in Perl scalars via:

    ファイルハンドルをPerlのスカラーに保持されている"メモリ内"ファイルに対 して開くことができます。

       open($fh,'>', \$variable) || ...
  • Anonymous temporary files are available without need to 'use FileHandle' or other module via

    Anonymous temporary fileが'use FileHandle'や他のモジュールを使う必要な しに利用可能です。

       open($fh,"+>", undef) || ...

    That is a literal undef, not an undefined value.

    これは正確にundefで、未定義の値ではありません。

  • The list form of open is now implemented for pipes (at least on UNIX):

    パイプに対してリスト形式の open が実装されました(少なくともUNIXでは)。

       open($fh,"-|", 'cat', '/etc/motd')

    creates a pipe, and runs the equivalent of exec('cat', '/etc/motd') in the child process.

    これはパイプを作成し、exec('cat', '/etc/motd')と同等のものを子プロセス で実行します。

  • If your locale environment variables (LANGUAGE, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG) contain the strings 'UTF-8' or 'UTF8' (case-insensitive matching), the default encoding of your STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR, and of any subsequent file open, is UTF-8.

    もしロケールの環境変数(LANGUAGE, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LANG)が文字列'UTF-8' あるいは'UTF8'(大文字小文字は区別しません)を含んでいると、STDIN, STDOUT, STDERR、およびany subsequent file openのデフォルトのエンコーディング はUTF-8です。

Restricted Hashes

リストリクトハッシュ

A restricted hash is restricted to a certain set of keys, no keys outside the set can be added. Also individual keys can be restricted so that the key cannot be deleted and the value cannot be changed. No new syntax is involved: the Hash::Util module is the interface.

リストリクトハッシュは使用するキーをある集合に制限し、集合に含まれないキーを追加をすることを防ぎます。さらにそれぞれのキーに対して削除や値の変更を制限することができます。Hash::Utilモジュールがそのインターフェイスになり、新しい構文は複雑にはなりません。

Safe Signals

安全なシグナル

Perl used to be fragile in that signals arriving at inopportune moments could corrupt Perl's internal state. Now Perl postpones handling of signals until it's safe (between opcodes).

シグナルが都合の悪い時にやって来るとPerlの内部状態が改変されてしまうと いう点で以前のPerlは壊れやすいものでした。しかし現在のPerlは安全になる まで(between opcodes)シグナルの扱いを引き延ばすようになりました。

This change may have surprising side effects because signals no longer interrupt Perl instantly. Perl will now first finish whatever it was doing, like finishing an internal operation (like sort()) or an external operation (like an I/O operation), and only then look at any arrived signals (and before starting the next operation). No more corrupt internal state since the current operation is always finished first, but the signal may take more time to get heard. Note that breaking out from potentially blocking operations should still work, though.

この変更は、シグナルがPerlをただちに中断させなくなったため、驚くべき副 作用を持っているかもしれません。現在のPerlは、最初に例えば(sort()のよう な)内部操作や(I/O操作のような)外部操作を1つ完了することによって今行って いることを終わらせ、その後にのみ(そして次の操作を開始する前に)受け取っ たシグナルを調べます。現在の操作が必ず初めに終わらせられるので内部状態 の改変は無くなりましたが、シグナルが効果を発揮するためにはより多くの時 間がかかるかもしれません。しかしpotentially blocking operationsからの脱 出は今でも働くはずです。

Unicode Overhaul

Unicodeのオーバーホール

Unicode in general should be now much more usable than in Perl 5.6.0 (or even in 5.6.1). Unicode can be used in hash keys, Unicode in regular expressions should work now, Unicode in tr/// should work now, Unicode in I/O should work now. See perluniintro for introduction and perlunicode for details.

Unicodeは全体的にPerl 5.6.0(あるいは5.6.1さえ)よりもさらに使えるように なったはずです。Unicodeはハッシュキー中に使われることが可能で、正規表現 でのUnicode、tr///でのUnicode、I/OでのUnicodeは動作するようになったはず です。入門についてはperluniintroを、詳細についてはperluniintroを 参照してください。

  • The Unicode Character Database coming with Perl has been upgraded to Unicode 3.2.0. For more information, see http://www.unicode.org/ . [561+] (5.6.1 has UCD 3.0.1.)

    Perlに付属するデータベースはUnicode 3.2.0にアップグレードされました。 さらなる情報が欲しい場合はhttp://www.unicode.org/を御覧下さい。 [561+] (5.6.1ではUCD 3.0.1でした。)

  • For developers interested in enhancing Perl's Unicode capabilities: almost all the UCD files are included with the Perl distribution in the lib/unicore subdirectory. The most notable omission, for space considerations, is the Unihan database.

    Unicodeの可用性が高度になっていくことに興味がある開発者のために: 全てのUCDファイルの大部分がPerlのディストリビューションのサブディレクトリ lib/unicoreに含まれています。スペースの事情で省略してしまったものの中で もっとも特筆すべきはUnihan databaseです。

  • The properties \p{Blank} and \p{SpacePerl} have been added. "Blank" is like C isblank(), that is, it contains only "horizontal whitespace" (the space character is, the newline isn't), and the "SpacePerl" is the Unicode equivalent of \s (\p{Space} isn't, since that includes the vertical tabulator character, whereas \s doesn't.)

    プロパティー \p{Blank}と\p{SpacePerl}が追加されています。"Blank"はCのisblank() に似ていますが、"horizontal whitespace"(スペース文字であって、改行ではない) で、"SpacePerl"は\sに相当するUnicodeです(垂直タブ文字が含まれているので \p{Space}ではありません、一方\sでは垂直タブが含まれていないのです。)

    See "New Unicode Properties" earlier in this document for additional information on changes with Unicode properties.

    先にこのドキュメントのUnicodeプロパティーに関する変更点の追加情報に ある"新しいUnicodeプロパティー"を御覧下さい。

Understanding of Numbers

数字の解釈

In general a lot of fixing has happened in the area of Perl's understanding of numbers, both integer and floating point. Since in many systems the standard number parsing functions like strtoul() and atof() seem to have bugs, Perl tries to work around their deficiencies. This results hopefully in more accurate numbers.

Perlの数字(整数及び浮動小数点の両方)の解釈の方面に関して全体的に多くの 修正がなされました。多くのシステムにおいてstrtoul()atof()のよう な数字をパースする標準の関数がバグを抱えているように見えるので、Perlは それらの欠陥に対処するように努めます。上手くいけば数字がより正確になる でしょう。

Perl now tries internally to use integer values in numeric conversions and basic arithmetics (+ - * /) if the arguments are integers, and tries also to keep the results stored internally as integers. This change leads to often slightly faster and always less lossy arithmetics. (Previously Perl always preferred floating point numbers in its math.)

Perlは、数の変換や基本計算(+ - * /)において、もし引数が整数ならば内部的 に整数値を使うように努め、さらに、内部的に整数として記憶された結果を保 持するように努めるようになりました。この変更により、わずかに速くなるこ とがよく起こり、常にless lossy arithmeticsになります。(Perlは以前は常に 計算時には浮動小数点数を優先していました。)

Arrays now always interpolate into double-quoted strings [561]

配列は二重引用符で囲まれた文字列において常に展開されるように [561]

In double-quoted strings, arrays now interpolate, no matter what. The behavior in earlier versions of perl 5 was that arrays would interpolate into strings if the array had been mentioned before the string was compiled, and otherwise Perl would raise a fatal compile-time error. In versions 5.000 through 5.003, the error was

        Literal @example now requires backslash

In versions 5.004_01 through 5.6.0, the error was

        In string, @example now must be written as \@example

The idea here was to get people into the habit of writing "fred\@example.com" when they wanted a literal @ sign, just as they have always written "Give me back my \$5" when they wanted a literal $ sign.

二重引用符で囲まれた文字列において、どんなことが起こるとしても、配列は 展開されるようになりました。Perl 5の初期のバージョンでは、文字列がコン パイルされる以前にその配列が現れていればその文字列にその配列を展開し、 もし現れていなければ致命的なコンパイル時エラーを発生させるという動作を していました。バージョン5.000から5.003では、そのエラーは

        Literal @example now requires backslash

(リテラル@exampleはバックスラッシュが必要になりました) でした。バージョ ン5.004_01から5.6.0では、そのエラーは

        In string, @example now must be written as \@example

(文字列内では、@exampleは\@exampleと書かなければならなくなりました) で した。これは、リテラルの記号$が欲しければ"Give me back my \$5"と 必ず書いているように、リテラルの記号@が欲しければ "fred\@example.com"と書く癖を人々に身に付けさせるためのものでした。

Starting with 5.6.1, when Perl now sees an @ sign in a double-quoted string, it always attempts to interpolate an array, regardless of whether or not the array has been used or declared already. The fatal error has been downgraded to an optional warning:

        Possible unintended interpolation of @example in string

This warns you that "fred@example.com" is going to turn into fred.com if you don't backslash the @. See http://www.plover.com/~mjd/perl/at-error.html for more details about the history here.

5.6.1からは、@記号が二重引用符で囲まれた文字列内にあると、その配列が すでに使われているか宣言されているかどうかに関係なく、その配列を展開す ることを必ず試みます。致命的エラーはオプショナルの警告に格下げされま した:

        Possible unintended interpolation of @example in string

(意図しない可能性のある文字列内での@exampleの展開)

これは、もし@にバックスラッシュを付けなければ"fred@example.com"fred.comに変わるだろうという警告です。この経緯についての詳細は http://www.plover.com/~mjd/perl/at-error.html を参照してください。

Miscellaneous Changes

その他の変更点

  • AUTOLOAD is now lvaluable, meaning that you can add the :lvalue attribute to AUTOLOAD subroutines and you can assign to the AUTOLOAD return value.

  • The $Config{byteorder} (and corresponding BYTEORDER in config.h) was previously wrong in platforms if sizeof(long) was 4, but sizeof(IV) was 8. The byteorder was only sizeof(long) bytes long (1234 or 4321), but now it is correctly sizeof(IV) bytes long, (12345678 or 87654321). (This problem didn't affect Windows platforms.)

    Also, $Config{byteorder} is now computed dynamically--this is more robust with "fat binaries" where an executable image contains binaries for more than one binary platform, and when cross-compiling.

  • perl -d:Module=arg,arg,arg now works (previously one couldn't pass in multiple arguments.)

    perl -d:Module=arg,arg,argが使用可能になりました。(以前は 複数の引数を渡すことができませんでした。)

  • do followed by a bareword now ensures that this bareword isn't a keyword (to avoid a bug where do q(foo.pl) tried to call a subroutine called q). This means that for example instead of do format() you must write do &format().

  • The builtin dump() now gives an optional warning dump() better written as CORE::dump(), meaning that by default dump(...) is resolved as the builtin dump() which dumps core and aborts, not as (possibly) user-defined sub dump. To call the latter, qualify the call as &dump(...). (The whole dump() feature is to considered deprecated, and possibly removed/changed in future releases.)

    組み込みのdump()は現在オプショナルな警告であるdump() better written as CORE::dump()を出すようになりました。それはデフォルトのdump(...)に よるものはユーザーによって定義された(可能性のある)sub dumpとしてではなく coreを出して中断する組み込みのdump()として解決されると言う意味です。 前者を呼び出すためには&dump(...)として下さい。 (dump()という形式全体が非推奨とされていますので、将来のリリースに備えて 可能な限り消去・変更するようにして下さい。)

  • chomp() and chop() are now overridable. Note, however, that their prototype (as given by prototype("CORE::chomp") is undefined, because it cannot be expressed and therefore one cannot really write replacements to override these builtins.

    chomp()及びchop()はオーバーライド可能になりました。しかしながら、 プロトタイプ(prototype("CORE::chomp")によって与えられるもの)が 未定義で、理由はそれを表現することは不可能で、組み込まれているものを オーバーライドする以外の方法が本当に無いからだと言うことに注意して下さい。

  • END blocks are now run even if you exit/die in a BEGIN block. Internally, the execution of END blocks is now controlled by PL_exit_flags & PERL_EXIT_DESTRUCT_END. This enables the new behaviour for Perl embedders. This will default in 5.10. See perlembed.

  • Formats now support zero-padded decimal fields.

  • Lvalue subroutines can now return undef in list context. However, the lvalue subroutine feature still remains experimental. [561+]

  • A lost warning "Can't declare ... dereference in my" has been restored (Perl had it earlier but it became lost in later releases.)

    廃止された警告"Can't declare ... dereference in my"が復活しています。 (初期のPerlはその警告を出しますが、その後のリリースでは廃止されていました。)

  • A new special regular expression variable has been introduced: $^N, which contains the most-recently closed group (submatch).

  • no Module; does not produce an error even if Module does not have an unimport() method. This parallels the behavior of use vis-a-vis import. [561]

    no Module;はモジュールがunimport()メソッドを持っていない際でもエラーを 発生させません。これはuseの振る舞いがimportと比較して類似している からです。

  • The numerical comparison operators return undef if either operand is a NaN. Previously the behaviour was unspecified.

    数を比較する演算子でどちらかのオペランドがNaNの場合undefを返すように なりました。以前はその振る舞いが不定でした。

  • our can now have an experimental optional attribute unique that affects how global variables are shared among multiple interpreters, see "our" in perlfunc.

    ourは複数のインタプリタ間でどのようにグローバル変数が共有されるかに 影響を及ぼす実験的でオプショナルな属性uniqueを設定可能になりましたので、 "our" in perlfuncを御覧下さい。

  • The following builtin functions are now overridable: each(), keys(), pop(), push(), shift(), splice(), unshift(). [561]

    次に挙げる組み込み関数はオーバーライド可能になりました: each(), keys(), pop(), push(), shift(), splice(), unshift(). [561]

  • pack() / unpack() can now group template letters with () and then apply repetition/count modifiers on the groups.

  • pack() / unpack() can now process the Perl internal numeric types: IVs, UVs, NVs-- and also long doubles, if supported by the platform. The template letters are j, J, F, and D.

  • pack('U0a*', ...) can now be used to force a string to UTF8.

  • my __PACKAGE__ $obj now works. [561]

    my __PACKAGE__ $obj が動作するようになりました。

  • POSIX::sleep() now returns the number of unslept seconds (as the POSIX standard says), as opposed to CORE::sleep() which returns the number of slept seconds.

    sleepした秒数を返すCORE::sleep()とは逆に、POSIX::sleep()は sleepしなかった秒数を返すようになりました(POSIXが標準でそうするように)。

  • The printf() and sprintf() now support parameter reordering using the %\d+\$ and *\d+\$ syntaxes. For example

    printf()とsprintf()は%\d+\$*\d+\$と言う構文を用いることによって パラメーターの並べ替えができるようになりました。例えば、

        print "%2\$s %1\$s\n", "foo", "bar";

    will print "bar foo\n". This feature helps in writing internationalised software, and in general when the order of the parameters can vary.

    は"bar foo\n"を表示します。この形式は国際化されたソフトウェアを書く際の 助けとなり、一般的にはパラメーターを並びを変化させることができます。

  • The (\&) prototype now works properly. [561]

    プロトタイプ(\&)が適切に働くようになりました。

  • prototype(\[$@%&]) is now available to implicitly create references (useful for example if you want to emulate the tie() interface).

    プロトタイプ(\[$@%&])は暗黙にリファレンスを作成することが可能になりました (tie()のインターフェースをエミュレートしたい場合に便利です)。

  • A new command-line option, -t is available. It is the little brother of -T: instead of dying on taint violations, lexical warnings are given. This is only meant as a temporary debugging aid while securing the code of old legacy applications. This is not a substitute for -T.

    新しいコマンドラインオプションである-tが使用可能になりました。 これは-Tのちょっとした弟分で、病毒汚染の嵐で強制終了 させる代わりにレキシカル警告を発生させます。 これは古いレガシーなアプリケーションのコードが安全である限り 一時的なデバッグするのを助けるものであることを意味するだけです。 -Tの代わりにはなりません。

  • In other taint news, the exec LIST and system LIST have now been considered too risky (think exec @ARGV: it can start any program with any arguments), and now the said forms cause a warning under lexical warnings. You should carefully launder the arguments to guarantee their validity. In future releases of Perl the forms will become fatal errors so consider starting laundering now.

  • Tied hash interfaces are now required to have the EXISTS and DELETE methods (either own or inherited).

    tieされたハッシュのインターフェースは現在EXISTSとDELETEメソッドを 持っていることが要求されるようになりました(それ自身か継承される対象の どちらかがです)。

  • If tr/// is just counting characters, it doesn't attempt to modify its target.

  • untie() will now call an UNTIE() hook if it exists. See perltie for details. [561]

    untie()は現在UNTIE()フックが存在すれば、それを呼び出すでしょう。 詳細はperltieを御覧下さい。

  • utime now supports utime undef, undef, @files to change the file timestamps to the current time.

    utimeは現在ファイルのタイムスタンプを現在の時刻に変更するために utime undef, undef @filesをサポートします。

  • The rules for allowing underscores (underbars) in numeric constants have been relaxed and simplified: now you can have an underscore simply between digits.

    定数のアンダースコア(アンダーバー)に関するのルールは緩和され シンプルになりました: 現在単純にデジットの間であれば アンダースコアを含んでも構いません。

  • Rather than relying on C's argv[0] (which may not contain a full pathname) where possible $^X is now set by asking the operating system. (eg by reading /proc/self/exe on Linux, /proc/curproc/file on FreeBSD)

  • A new variable, ${^TAINT}, indicates whether taint mode is enabled.

    新しい変数, ${^TAINT}は病毒汚染予防モードが使用可能かどうかを示します。

  • You can now override the readline() builtin, and this overrides also the <FILEHANDLE> angle bracket operator.

    ビルトインのreadline()がオーバーライドになり、<FILEHANDLE>といった 角括弧の演算子も同時にオーバーライドします。

  • The command-line options -s and -F are now recognized on the shebang (#!) line.

    コマンドラインオプションである-sと-Fは一切合財の行(#!)を認識する ようになりました。

  • Use of the /c match modifier without an accompanying /g modifier elicits a new warning: Use of /c modifier is meaningless without /g.

    Use of /c in substitutions, even with /g, elicits Use of /c modifier is meaningless in s///.

    Use of /g with split elicits Use of /g modifier is meaningless in split.

  • Support for the CLONE special subroutine had been added. With ithreads, when a new thread is created, all Perl data is cloned, however non-Perl data cannot be cloned automatically. In CLONE you can do whatever you need to do, like for example handle the cloning of non-Perl data, if necessary. CLONE will be executed once for every package that has it defined or inherited. It will be called in the context of the new thread, so all modifications are made in the new area.

    See perlmod

Modules and Pragmata

モジュールとプラグマ

New Modules and Pragmata

新しいモジュールとプラグマ

  • Attribute::Handlers, originally by Damian Conway and now maintained by Arthur Bergman, allows a class to define attribute handlers.

    Attribute::Handlersは、元々Damian Conwayが作ったものですが 現在Arthur Bergmanによって保守されており、属性ハンドラを 定義することができます。

        package MyPack;
        use Attribute::Handlers;
        sub Wolf :ATTR(SCALAR) { print "howl!\n" }
    
        # later, in some package using or inheriting from MyPack...
    
        # その後、あるpackageでMyPackを使う、あるいは継承すると...
    
        my MyPack $Fluffy : Wolf; # the attribute handler Wolf will be called
    
        my MyPack $Fluffy : Wolf; # 属性ハンドラWolfが呼び出されるでしょう

    Both variables and routines can have attribute handlers. Handlers can be specific to type (SCALAR, ARRAY, HASH, or CODE), or specific to the exact compilation phase (BEGIN, CHECK, INIT, or END). See Attribute::Handlers.

    変数とルーチンの両方とも属性ハンドラを持つことが可能です。ハンドラは ある型(SCALAR, ARRAY, HASH,あるいはCODE)に特有であるか、あるいは まさにその編簒段階(BEGIN, CHECK, INITまたはEND)に特有である 可能性があります。Attribute::Handlersを御覧下さい。

  • B::Concise, by Stephen McCamant, is a new compiler backend for walking the Perl syntax tree, printing concise info about ops. The output is highly customisable. See B::Concise. [561+]

  • The new bignum, bigint, and bigrat pragmas, by Tels, implement transparent bignum support (using the Math::BigInt, Math::BigFloat, and Math::BigRat backends).

    Telsによる新しいbignum, bigint,そしてbigratプラグマですが、 ありのままのbignumをサポートを実現しています(the Math::BigInt, Math::BigFloat, そしてMath::BigRatをバックエンドで使うことによって)。

  • Class::ISA, by Sean Burke, is a module for reporting the search path for a class's ISA tree. See Class::ISA.

    Sean BrukeによるClass::ISAですが、クラスのISAツリーのサーチパスを レポートするためのモジュールです。Class::ISAを御覧下さい。

  • Cwd now has a split personality: if possible, an XS extension is used, (this will hopefully be faster, more secure, and more robust) but if not possible, the familiar Perl implementation is used.

  • Devel::PPPort, originally by Kenneth Albanowski and now maintained by Paul Marquess, has been added. It is primarily used by h2xs to enhance portability of XS modules between different versions of Perl. See Devel::PPPort.

    Devel::PPPortは、もともとKenneth Albanowskiによって作られましたが 現在はPaul Marquessによって保守されているのですが、追加されることに なりました。このモジュールは異なるバージョン間でのXSモジュールにおける 携帯性を向上させるためにh2xsによって優先的に使用されます。 Devel::PPPortを御覧下さい。

  • Digest, frontend module for calculating digests (checksums), from Gisle Aas, has been added. See Digest.

    Digestはダイジェスト(チェックサム)を計算するためのフロントエンドの モジュールで、Gisle Aasによるものですが、追加されることになりました。 Digestを御覧下さい。

  • Digest::MD5 for calculating MD5 digests (checksums) as defined in RFC 1321, from Gisle Aas, has been added. See Digest::MD5.

    Gisle AasによるDigest::MD5はRFC 1321に従ってMD5ダイジェスト(チェックサム)の 算出を行いますが、追加されることになりました。Digest::MD5を御覧下さい。

        use Digest::MD5 'md5_hex';
    
        $digest = md5_hex("Thirsty Camel");
    
        print $digest, "\n"; # 01d19d9d2045e005c3f1b80e8b164de1

    NOTE: the MD5 backward compatibility module is deliberately not included since its further use is discouraged.

    NOTE: MD5は以前のものと互換性のあるモジュールはこの先 使われる見込みがなくなったため意図的に含まれていません。

    See also PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint.

    参考資料としてPerlIO::via::QuotedPrintを挙げます。

  • Encode, originally by Nick Ing-Simmons and now maintained by Dan Kogai, provides a mechanism to translate between different character encodings. Support for Unicode, ISO-8859-1, and ASCII are compiled in to the module. Several other encodings (like the rest of the ISO-8859, CP*/Win*, Mac, KOI8-R, three variants EBCDIC, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean encodings) are included and can be loaded at runtime. (For space considerations, the largest Chinese encodings have been separated into their own CPAN module, Encode::HanExtra, which Encode will use if available). See Encode.

    Encodeは元々Nick Ing-Simmonsによって作られたものですが、現在Dan Kogaiに よって保守されており、異なるキャラクターエンコーディング間を変換する メカニズムを提供します。Unicode, ISO-8859-1及びASCIIをサポートし モジュール内にまとめられています。他のいくつかのエンコーディング (ISO-8859, CP*/Win*, Mac, KOI8-R, 3通りのEBCDIC, 中国語, 日本語, そして韓国語エンコーディングのような一部のもの)は含まれており ランタイムによってロードすることが可能です。(スペースを考えて、 一番大きい中国語のエンコーディングは独自のCPANモジュールである Encode::HanExtraとして隔離されており、Encodeは利用可能な場合利用 するでしょう)。Encodeを御覧下さい。

    Any encoding supported by Encode module is also available to the ":encoding()" layer if PerlIO is used.

    Encodeモジュールによってサポートされたいかなるエンコーディングも PerlIOが使用されている場合":encoding()"レイヤが使用可能です。

  • Hash::Util is the interface to the new restricted hashes feature. (Implemented by Jeffrey Friedl, Nick Ing-Simmons, and Michael Schwern.) See Hash::Util.

    Hash::Util制限付きハッシュ形式へのインターフェースです。 (Jeffrey Friedl, Nick Ing-Simmons,そしてMichael Schwernによるものです。) Hash::Utilを御覧下さい。

  • I18N::Langinfo can be used to query locale information. See I18N::Langinfo.

  • I18N::LangTags, by Sean Burke, has functions for dealing with RFC3066-style language tags. See I18N::LangTags.

    I18N::LangTagsはSean Brukeによるものですが、RFC3066スタイルの 言語タグを扱うための関数を持ちます。I18N::LangTagsを御覧下さい。

  • ExtUtils::Constant, by Nicholas Clark, is a new tool for extension writers for generating XS code to import C header constants. See ExtUtils::Constant.

  • Filter::Simple, by Damian Conway, is an easy-to-use frontend to Filter::Util::Call. See Filter::Simple.

    Filter::SimpleはDamian Conwayによるものですが、フロントエンドで Filter::Util::Callを簡単に扱えるようにしたものです。<Filter::Simple>を 御覧下さい。

        # in MyFilter.pm:
    
        # MyFilter.pm内で:
    
        package MyFilter;
    
        use Filter::Simple sub {
            while (my ($from, $to) = splice @_, 0, 2) {
                    s/$from/$to/g;
            }
        };
    
        1;
    
        # in user's code:
    
        # ユーザーのコード内で:
    
        use MyFilter qr/red/ => 'green';
    
        print "red\n";   # this code is filtered, will print "green\n"
        print "bored\n"; # this code is filtered, will print "bogreen\n"
    
        print "red\n";   # このコードはフィルターがかけられ、"green\n"を出力するでしょう。
        print "bored\n"; # このコードはフィルターがかけられ、"bogreen\n"を出力するでしょう。
    
    
        no MyFilter;
    
        print "red\n";   # このコードはフィルターがかけられず、"red\n"を出力するでしょう。
  • File::Temp, by Tim Jenness, allows one to create temporary files and directories in an easy, portable, and secure way. See File::Temp. [561+]

    File::TempはTim Jennessによるものですが、簡単かつ携帯性があり セキュアな方法でテンポラリファイル及びディレクトリを作ることを可能にします。 File::Tempを御覧下さい。

  • Filter::Util::Call, by Paul Marquess, provides you with the framework to write source filters in Perl. For most uses, the frontend Filter::Simple is to be preferred. See Filter::Util::Call.

    Filter::Util::CallはPaul Marquessによるものですが、source filters をPerlで書くためのフレームワークを提供します。大抵の場合には フロントエンドのFilter::Simpleを使う方法が好まれます。<Filter::Util::Call> を御覧下さい。

  • if, by Ilya Zakharevich, is a new pragma for conditional inclusion of modules.

    ifはIlya Zakharevichによるものですが、一定条件下でのモジュールの インクルードを実現するための新しいプラグマです。

  • libnet, by Graham Barr, is a collection of perl5 modules related to network programming. See Net::FTP, Net::NNTP, Net::Ping (not part of libnet, but related), Net::POP3, Net::SMTP, and Net::Time.

    libnetはGraham Barrによるものですが、ネットワークプログラミング関連の Perl5モジュールを集めたものです。Net::FTPNet::NNTP及び、 Net::Ping(libnetの一部ではありませんが、関連しています。)、 Net::POP3Net::SMTPを御覧下さい。

    Perl installation leaves libnet unconfigured; use libnetcfg to configure it.

    Perlのインストールではlibnetが設定されないまま放置されます;設定するためには libnetcfgをお使い下さい。

  • List::Util, by Graham Barr, is a selection of general-utility list subroutines, such as sum(), min(), first(), and shuffle(). See List::Util.

    List::UtilはGraham Barrによるものですが、sum()やmin(), first()及び shuffle()などのようなリストに関する一般的なユーティリティサブルーチンが 集まったものです。List::Util

  • Locale::Constants, Locale::Country, Locale::Currency Locale::Language, and Locale::Script, by Neil Bowers, have been added. They provide the codes for various locale standards, such as "fr" for France, "usd" for US Dollar, and "ja" for Japanese.

        use Locale::Country;
    
        $country = code2country('jp');               # $country gets 'Japan'
        $code    = country2code('Norway');           # $code gets 'no'

    See Locale::Constants, Locale::Country, Locale::Currency, and Locale::Language.

  • Locale::Maketext, by Sean Burke, is a localization framework. See Locale::Maketext, and Locale::Maketext::TPJ13. The latter is an article about software localization, originally published in The Perl Journal #13, and republished here with kind permission.

  • Math::BigRat for big rational numbers, to accompany Math::BigInt and Math::BigFloat, from Tels. See Math::BigRat.

  • Memoize can make your functions faster by trading space for time, from Mark-Jason Dominus. See Memoize.

  • MIME::Base64, by Gisle Aas, allows you to encode data in base64, as defined in RFC 2045 - MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions).

    MIME::Base64はGisle Aasによるものですが、RFC 2045に従ってbase64 エンコードを可能にします - MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)

        use MIME::Base64;
    
        $encoded = encode_base64('Aladdin:open sesame');
        $decoded = decode_base64($encoded);
    
        print $encoded, "\n"; # "QWxhZGRpbjpvcGVuIHNlc2FtZQ=="

    See MIME::Base64.

    MIME::Base64を御覧下さい。

  • MIME::QuotedPrint, by Gisle Aas, allows you to encode data in quoted-printable encoding, as defined in RFC 2045 - MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions).

    MIME:QuotedPrintはGisle Aasによるものですが、RFC 2045 - MIME(Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)で定義されている quoted-printable encodingでデータをエンコードすることを可能にします。

        use MIME::QuotedPrint;
    
        $encoded = encode_qp("Smiley in Unicode: \x{263a}");
        $decoded = decode_qp($encoded);
    
        print $encoded, "\n"; # "Smiley in Unicode: =263A"
    
        print $encoded, "\n"; # "UnicodeにおけるSmiley: =263A"

    See also PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint.

    <PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint>も併せてご覧ください。

  • NEXT, by Damian Conway, is a pseudo-class for method redispatch. See NEXT.

  • open is a new pragma for setting the default I/O layers for open().

    openはopen()のためのデフォルトのI/Oレイヤをセットするための 新しいプラグマです。

  • PerlIO::scalar, by Nick Ing-Simmons, provides the implementation of IO to "in memory" Perl scalars as discussed above. It also serves as an example of a loadable PerlIO layer. Other future possibilities include PerlIO::Array and PerlIO::Code. See PerlIO::scalar.

  • PerlIO::via, by Nick Ing-Simmons, acts as a PerlIO layer and wraps PerlIO layer functionality provided by a class (typically implemented in Perl code).

  • PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint, by Elizabeth Mattijsen, is an example of a PerlIO::via class:

    PerlIO::via::QuotedPrintはElizabeth Mattijsenによるものですが、 PerlIO::viaクラスの一例です。:

        use PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint;
        open($fh,">:via(QuotedPrint)",$path);

    This will automatically convert everything output to $fh to Quoted-Printable. See PerlIO::via and PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint.

    これは自動的に$fhへの全ての出力をQuoted-Printableにコンバートするでしょう。 PerlIO::via及びPerlIO::via::QuotedPrintを参照下さい。

  • Pod::ParseLink, by Russ Allbery, has been added, to parse L<> links in pods as described in the new perlpodspec.

    Pod::ParseLinkはRuss Allberyによるもので、新しい pod内で新しいperlpod仕様として記述されるL<>リンクを パースするためのものですが、追加されることになりました。

  • Pod::Text::Overstrike, by Joe Smith, has been added. It converts POD data to formatted overstrike text. See Pod::Text::Overstrike. [561+]

    Pod::Text::OverstrikeはJoe Smithによるものですが、 追加されました。overstrike文章をPODデータにコンバートしてくれます。 Pod::Text::Overstrikeをご覧ください。

  • Scalar::Util is a selection of general-utility scalar subroutines, such as blessed(), reftype(), and tainted(). See Scalar::Util.

    Scalar::Utilはblessed(), reftype()やtainted()のような、一般的な ユーティリティースカラーサブルーチンを選り集めたものです。 Scalar::Utilをご覧ください。

  • sort is a new pragma for controlling the behaviour of sort().

    sortはsort()の振る舞いを制御する新しいプラグマです。

  • Storable gives persistence to Perl data structures by allowing the storage and retrieval of Perl data to and from files in a fast and compact binary format. Because in effect Storable does serialisation of Perl data structures, with it you can also clone deep, hierarchical datastructures. Storable was originally created by Raphael Manfredi, but it is now maintained by Abhijit Menon-Sen. Storable has been enhanced to understand the two new hash features, Unicode keys and restricted hashes. See Storable.

  • Switch, by Damian Conway, has been added. Just by saying

    SwitchはDamian Conwayによるものですが、追加されました。ただ

        use Switch;

    you have switch and case available in Perl.

    と宣言することによってswitchcaseがPerlで利用可能になります。

        use Switch;
    
        switch ($val) {
    
                    case 1          { print "number 1" }
                    case "a"        { print "string a" }
                    case [1..10,42] { print "number in list" }
                    case (@array)   { print "number in list" }
                    case /\w+/      { print "pattern" }
                    case qr/\w+/    { print "pattern" }
                    case (%hash)    { print "entry in hash" }
                    case (\%hash)   { print "entry in hash" }
                    case (\&sub)    { print "arg to subroutine" }
                    else            { print "previous case not true" }
        }

    See Switch.

    Switchをご覧ください。

  • Test::More, by Michael Schwern, is yet another framework for writing test scripts, more extensive than Test::Simple. See Test::More.

  • Test::Simple, by Michael Schwern, has basic utilities for writing tests. See Test::Simple.

    Test::SimpleはMichael Schwernによるテストを書くための基礎となるユーティリティ です。Test::Simpleをご覧ください。

  • Text::Balanced, by Damian Conway, has been added, for extracting delimited text sequences from strings.

    Text::BalancedはDamian Conwayによるもので、複数の文字列から区切られた テキストの連続を抽出するためのものですが、追加されることになりました。

        use Text::Balanced 'extract_delimited';
    
        ($a, $b) = extract_delimited("'never say never', he never said", "'", '');

    $a will be "'never say never'", $b will be ', he never said'.

    $aは"'never say never'"なり、 $bは', he never said'になるでしょう。

    In addition to extract_delimited(), there are also extract_bracketed(), extract_quotelike(), extract_codeblock(), extract_variable(), extract_tagged(), extract_multiple(), gen_delimited_pat(), and gen_extract_tagged(). With these, you can implement rather advanced parsing algorithms. See Text::Balanced.

    言い加えますと、extract_delimited()の他に、extract_quotelike(), extract_variable(). extract_tagged(), extract_multople(), gen_delimited_pat(),及びgen_extract_tagged() も存在します。これらによって、より発展したパースのアルゴリズムを実装することが かのうになり案す。Text::Balancedをご覧ください。

  • threads, by Arthur Bergman, is an interface to interpreter threads. Interpreter threads (ithreads) is the new thread model introduced in Perl 5.6 but only available as an internal interface for extension writers (and for Win32 Perl for fork() emulation). See threads, threads::shared, and perlthrtut.

    threadsがArthur Bergmanによるものですが、インタプリタスレッドへの インターフェースです。インタプリタスレッド(ithreads)はPerl5.6で導入された 新しいスレッドモデルでしたが拡張機能を書く人に対して内部形式のインターフェース のみしか利用できませんでした(また、Win32のPerlではfork()のエミュレーションの ためのものでした)。threadsthreads::shared及びperlthrtutをご覧ください。

  • threads::shared, by Arthur Bergman, allows data sharing for interpreter threads. In the ithreads model any data sharing between threads must be explicit, as opposed to the old 5.005 thread model where data sharing was implicit. See threads::shared.

    threads::sharedはArtur Bergmanによるものですが、インタプリタスレッドで データを共有することを可能にします。データの共有が不明瞭である 古い5.005でのスレッドモデルに対するものとして、ithreadsモデルではスレッド間での データの共有は明示的でなくてはなりません。<threads::shared>をご覧ください。

  • Tie::File, by Mark-Jason Dominus, associates a Perl array with the lines of a file. See Tie::File.

  • Tie::Memoize, by Ilya Zakharevich, provides on-demand loaded hashes. See Tie::Memoize.

  • Tie::RefHash::Nestable, by Edward Avis, allows storing hash references (unlike the standard Tie::RefHash) The module is contained within Tie::RefHash. See Tie::RefHash.

    Tie::RefHash::NestableはEdward Avisによるものですが、ハッシュのリファレンスを 格納することを可能にします(Tie::RefHashとは異なるものです)。本モジュールは Tie::Refhashを含んでいます。Tie::RefHashをご覧ください。

  • Time::HiRes, by Douglas E. Wegscheid, provides high resolution timing (ualarm, usleep, and gettimeofday). See Time::HiRes.

    Time::HiResはDouglas E. Wegcheidによるものですが、高度なタイミングの 解決(ualarm, usleep, and gettimeofday)を提供します。Time::HiResをご覧ください。

  • Unicode::UCD offers a querying interface to the Unicode Character Database. See Unicode::UCD.

    Unicode::UCDはUnicode文字のデータベースへのクエリーのインターフェースを 提供します。Unicode::UCDをご覧ください。

  • Unicode::Collate, by SADAHIRO Tomoyuki, implements the UCA (Unicode Collation Algorithm) for sorting Unicode strings. See Unicode::Collate.

    Unicode::CollateはSADAHIRO Tomoyukiによるものですが、Unicode文字列を ソートするためのUCA(Unicode Collation Algorithm)の実装です。 Unicode::Collateをご覧ください。

  • Unicode::Normalize, by SADAHIRO Tomoyuki, implements the various Unicode normalization forms. See Unicode::Normalize.

  • XS::APItest, by Tim Jenness, is a test extension that exercises XS APIs. Currently only printf() is tested: how to output various basic data types from XS.

  • XS::Typemap, by Tim Jenness, is a test extension that exercises XS typemaps. Nothing gets installed, but the code is worth studying for extension writers.

Updated And Improved Modules and Pragmata

更新または改善されたモジュールとプラグマ

  • The following independently supported modules have been updated to the newest versions from CPAN: CGI, CPAN, DB_File, File::Spec, File::Temp, Getopt::Long, Math::BigFloat, Math::BigInt, the podlators bundle (Pod::Man, Pod::Text), Pod::LaTeX [561+], Pod::Parser, Storable, Term::ANSIColor, Test, Text-Tabs+Wrap.

  • attributes::reftype() now works on tied arguments.

    attributes::reftype()は現在を持ってtieされた引数で動作するようになりました。

  • AutoLoader can now be disabled with no AutoLoader;.

    AutoLoaderは現在をもってno AutoLoader;によって利用不可にすることが 可能になりました。

  • B::Deparse has been significantly enhanced by Robin Houston. It can now deparse almost all of the standard test suite (so that the tests still succeed). There is a make target "test.deparse" for trying this out.

  • Carp now has better interface documentation, and the @CARP_NOT interface has been added to get optional control over where errors are reported independently of @ISA, by Ben Tilly.

  • Class::Struct can now define the classes in compile time.

    Class::Structはコンパイル時にクラスを定義できるようになりました。

  • Class::Struct now assigns the array/hash element if the accessor is called with an array/hash element as the sole argument.

    Class::Structはアクセサが単一で配列/ハッシュの要素の引数を伴って、 呼び出された場合、その配列/ハッシュの要素を割り当てます。

  • The return value of Cwd::fastcwd() is now tainted.

    Cwd::fastcwd()の返り値は汚染されるようになりました。

  • Data::Dumper now has an option to sort hashes.

    Data::Dumperにはハッシュをソートするオプションがつきました。

  • Data::Dumper now has an option to dump code references using B::Deparse.

  • DB_File now supports newer Berkeley DB versions, among other improvements.

  • Devel::Peek now has an interface for the Perl memory statistics (this works only if you are using perl's malloc, and if you have compiled with debugging).

  • The English module can now be used without the infamous performance hit by saying

            use English '-no_match_vars';

    (Assuming, of course, that you don't need the troublesome variables $`, $&, or $'.) Also, introduced @LAST_MATCH_START and @LAST_MATCH_END English aliases for @- and @+.

  • ExtUtils::MakeMaker has been significantly cleaned up and fixed. The enhanced version has also been backported to earlier releases of Perl and submitted to CPAN so that the earlier releases can enjoy the fixes.

  • The arguments of WriteMakefile() in Makefile.PL are now checked for sanity much more carefully than before. This may cause new warnings when modules are being installed. See ExtUtils::MakeMaker for more details.

    Makefile.PLにおけるWriteMakefile()の引数は以前より選り注意深く、正確な チェックを行うようになりました。これはモジュールがインストールされるとき 新たな警告を発生させることでしょう。さらなる詳細はExtUtils::MakeMakerを ご覧ください。

  • ExtUtils::MakeMaker now uses File::Spec internally, which hopefully leads to better portability.

  • Fcntl, Socket, and Sys::Syslog have been rewritten by Nicholas Clark to use the new-style constant dispatch section (see ExtUtils::Constant). This means that they will be more robust and hopefully faster.

    Fnctl, Socket,及びSysy::SyslogはNicholas Clarkによって 新しいスタイルの継続的なディスパッチセクションを用いるため書き直されました (ExtUtils::Constantをご覧ください)。これはより強力で高速化が期待されることを 意味します。

  • File::Find now chdir()s correctly when chasing symbolic links. [561]

    File::Findのシンボリックリンクの追跡の際のchdir()の動作が正確になりました。

  • File::Find now has pre- and post-processing callbacks. It also correctly changes directories when chasing symbolic links. Callbacks (naughtily) exiting with "next;" instead of "return;" now work.

  • File::Find is now (again) reentrant. It also has been made more portable.

    File::Findは(もう一度)入れられることになりました。より携帯性が高くなっています。

  • The warnings issued by File::Find now belong to their own category. You can enable/disable them with use/no warnings 'File::Find';.

  • File::Glob::glob() has been renamed to File::Glob::bsd_glob() because the name clashes with the builtin glob(). The older name is still available for compatibility, but is deprecated. [561]

    組み込みのglob()と名前が重複してしまうため、File::Glob::glob()は File::Glob::bsd_glob()に名前を変更されました。古いほうの名前は 互換性を保つためにまだ利用可能ですが、非推奨です。[561]

  • File::Glob now supports GLOB_LIMIT constant to limit the size of the returned list of filenames.

  • IPC::Open3 now allows the use of numeric file descriptors.

  • IO::Socket now has an atmark() method, which returns true if the socket is positioned at the out-of-band mark. The method is also exportable as a sockatmark() function.

  • IO::Socket::INET failed to open the specified port if the service name was not known. It now correctly uses the supplied port number as is. [561]

  • IO::Socket::INET has support for the ReusePort option (if your platform supports it). The Reuse option now has an alias, ReuseAddr. For clarity, you may want to prefer ReuseAddr.

  • IO::Socket::INET now supports a value of zero for LocalPort (usually meaning that the operating system will make one up.)

  • 'use lib' now works identically to @INC. Removing directories with 'no lib' now works.

  • Math::BigFloat and Math::BigInt have undergone a full rewrite by Tels. They are now magnitudes faster, and they support various bignum libraries such as GMP and PARI as their backends.

  • Math::Complex handles inf, NaN etc., better.

  • Net::Ping has been considerably enhanced by Rob Brown: multihoming is now supported, Win32 functionality is better, there is now time measuring functionality (optionally high-resolution using Time::HiRes), and there is now "external" protocol which uses Net::Ping::External module which runs your external ping utility and parses the output. A version of Net::Ping::External is available in CPAN.

    Note that some of the Net::Ping tests are disabled when running under the Perl distribution since one cannot assume one or more of the following: enabled echo port at localhost, full Internet connectivity, or sympathetic firewalls. You can set the environment variable PERL_TEST_Net_Ping to "1" (one) before running the Perl test suite to enable all the Net::Ping tests.

  • POSIX::sigaction() is now much more flexible and robust. You can now install coderef handlers, 'DEFAULT', and 'IGNORE' handlers, installing new handlers was not atomic.

  • In Safe, %INC is now localised in a Safe compartment so that use/require work.

  • In SDBM_File on dosish platforms, some keys went missing because of lack of support for files with "holes". A workaround for the problem has been added.

  • In Search::Dict one can now have a pre-processing hook for the lines being searched.

  • The Shell module now has an OO interface.

  • In Sys::Syslog there is now a failover mechanism that will go through alternative connection mechanisms until the message is successfully logged.

  • The Test module has been significantly enhanced.

  • Time::Local::timelocal() does not handle fractional seconds anymore. The rationale is that neither does localtime(), and timelocal() and localtime() are supposed to be inverses of each other.

  • The vars pragma now supports declaring fully qualified variables. (Something that our() does not and will not support.)

  • The utf8:: name space (as in the pragma) provides various Perl-callable functions to provide low level access to Perl's internal Unicode representation. At the moment only length() has been implemented.

Utility Changes

ツールの変更

  • Emacs perl mode (emacs/cperl-mode.el) has been updated to version 4.31.

  • emacs/e2ctags.pl is now much faster.

  • enc2xs is a tool for people adding their own encodings to the Encode module.

  • h2ph now supports C trigraphs.

  • h2xs now produces a template README.

  • h2xs now uses Devel::PPPort for better portability between different versions of Perl.

  • h2xs uses the new ExtUtils::Constant module which will affect newly created extensions that define constants. Since the new code is more correct (if you have two constants where the first one is a prefix of the second one, the first constant never got defined), less lossy (it uses integers for integer constant, as opposed to the old code that used floating point numbers even for integer constants), and slightly faster, you might want to consider regenerating your extension code (the new scheme makes regenerating easy). h2xs now also supports C trigraphs.

  • libnetcfg has been added to configure libnet.

  • perlbug is now much more robust. It also sends the bug report to perl.org, not perl.com.

  • perlcc has been rewritten and its user interface (that is, command line) is much more like that of the UNIX C compiler, cc. (The perlbc tools has been removed. Use perlcc -B instead.) Note that perlcc is still considered very experimental and unsupported. [561]

  • perlivp is a new Installation Verification Procedure utility for running any time after installing Perl.

  • piconv is an implementation of the character conversion utility iconv, demonstrating the new Encode module.

  • pod2html now allows specifying a cache directory.

  • pod2html now produces XHTML 1.0.

  • pod2html now understands POD written using different line endings (PC-like CRLF versus UNIX-like LF versus MacClassic-like CR).

  • s2p has been completely rewritten in Perl. (It is in fact a full implementation of sed in Perl: you can use the sed functionality by using the psed utility.)

  • xsubpp now understands POD documentation embedded in the *.xs files. [561]

  • xsubpp now supports the OUT keyword.

New Documentation

  • perl56delta details the changes between the 5.005 release and the 5.6.0 release.

  • perlclib documents the internal replacements for standard C library functions. (Interesting only for extension writers and Perl core hackers.) [561+]

  • perldebtut is a Perl debugging tutorial. [561+]

  • perlebcdic contains considerations for running Perl on EBCDIC platforms. [561+]

  • perlintro is a gentle introduction to Perl.

  • perliol documents the internals of PerlIO with layers.

  • perlmodstyle is a style guide for writing modules.

  • perlnewmod tells about writing and submitting a new module. [561+]

  • perlpacktut is a pack() tutorial.

  • perlpod has been rewritten to be clearer and to record the best practices gathered over the years.

  • perlpodspec is a more formal specification of the pod format, mainly of interest for writers of pod applications, not to people writing in pod.

  • perlretut is a regular expression tutorial. [561+]

  • perlrequick is a regular expressions quick-start guide. Yes, much quicker than perlretut. [561]

  • perltodo has been updated.

  • perltootc has been renamed as perltooc (to not to conflict with perltoot in filesystems restricted to "8.3" names).

  • perluniintro is an introduction to using Unicode in Perl. (perlunicode is more of a detailed reference and background information)

  • perlutil explains the command line utilities packaged with the Perl distribution. [561+]

The following platform-specific documents are available before the installation as README.platform, and after the installation as perlplatform:

    perlaix perlamiga perlapollo perlbeos perlbs2000
    perlce perlcygwin perldgux perldos perlepoc perlfreebsd perlhpux
    perlhurd perlirix perlmachten perlmacos perlmint perlmpeix
    perlnetware perlos2 perlos390 perlplan9 perlqnx perlsolaris
    perltru64 perluts perlvmesa perlvms perlvos perlwin32

These documents usually detail one or more of the following subjects: configuring, building, testing, installing, and sometimes also using P?rl on the said platform.

Eastern Asian Perl users are now welcomed in their own languages: README.jp (Japanese), README.ko (Korean), README.cn (simplified Chinese) and README.tw (traditional Chinese), which are written in normal pod but encoded in EUC-JP, EUC-KR, EUC-CN and Big5. These will get installed as

   perljp perlko perlcn perltw
  • The documentation for the POSIX-BC platform is called "BS2000", to avoid confusion with the Perl POSIX module.

  • The documentation for the WinCE platform is called perlce (README.ce in the source code kit), to avoid confusion with the perlwin32 documentation on 8.3-restricted filesystems.

Performance Enhancements

パフォーマンスの向上

  • map() could get pathologically slow when the result list it generates is larger than the source list. The performance has been improved for common scenarios. [561]

    map()は生成した結果のリストが元のリストよりも大きいときに病的に遅くなる ことがありました。そのパフォーマンスが一般的な場面において改善されまし た。

  • sort() is also fully reentrant, in the sense that the sort function can itself call sort(). This did not work reliably in previous releases. [561]

    sort()は、sort関数自身がsort()を呼ぶことができるという意味で、何度も呼 ぶことが完全にできます。それは以前のリリースでは確実には動作しませんで した。[561]

  • sort() has been changed to use primarily mergesort internally as opposed to the earlier quicksort. For very small lists this may result in slightly slower sorting times, but in general the speedup should be at least 20%. Additional bonuses are that the worst case behaviour of sort() is now better (in computer science terms it now runs in time O(N log N), as opposed to quicksort's Theta(N**2) worst-case run time behaviour), and that sort() is now stable (meaning that elements with identical keys will stay ordered as they were before the sort). See the sort pragma for information.

    The story in more detail: suppose you want to serve yourself a little slice of Pi.

        @digits = ( 3,1,4,1,5,9 );

    A numerical sort of the digits will yield (1,1,3,4,5,9), as expected. Which 1 comes first is hard to know, since one 1 looks pretty much like any other. You can regard this as totally trivial, or somewhat profound. However, if you just want to sort the even digits ahead of the odd ones, then what will

        sort { ($a % 2) <=> ($b % 2) } @digits;

    yield? The only even digit, 4, will come first. But how about the odd numbers, which all compare equal? With the quicksort algorithm used to implement Perl 5.6 and earlier, the order of ties is left up to the sort. So, as you add more and more digits of Pi, the order in which the sorted even and odd digits appear will change. and, for sufficiently large slices of Pi, the quicksort algorithm in Perl 5.8 won't return the same results even if reinvoked with the same input. The justification for this rests with quicksort's worst case behavior. If you run

       sort { $a <=> $b } ( 1 .. $N , 1 .. $N );

    (something you might approximate if you wanted to merge two sorted arrays using sort), doubling $N doesn't just double the quicksort time, it quadruples it. Quicksort has a worst case run time that can grow like N**2, so-called quadratic behaviour, and it can happen on patterns that may well arise in normal use. You won't notice this for small arrays, but you will notice it with larger arrays, and you may not live long enough for the sort to complete on arrays of a million elements. So the 5.8 quicksort scrambles large arrays before sorting them, as a statistical defence against quadratic behaviour. But that means if you sort the same large array twice, ties may be broken in different ways.

    Because of the unpredictability of tie-breaking order, and the quadratic worst-case behaviour, quicksort was almost replaced completely with a stable mergesort. Stable means that ties are broken to preserve the original order of appearance in the input array. So

        sort { ($a % 2) <=> ($b % 2) } (3,1,4,1,5,9);

    will yield (4,3,1,1,5,9), guaranteed. The even and odd numbers appear in the output in the same order they appeared in the input. Mergesort has worst case O(N log N) behaviour, the best value attainable. And, ironically, this mergesort does particularly well where quicksort goes quadratic: mergesort sorts (1..$N, 1..$N) in O(N) time. But quicksort was rescued at the last moment because it is faster than mergesort on certain inputs and platforms. For example, if you really don't care about the order of even and odd digits, quicksort will run in O(N) time; it's very good at sorting many repetitions of a small number of distinct elements. The quicksort divide and conquer strategy works well on platforms with relatively small, very fast, caches. Eventually, the problem gets whittled down to one that fits in the cache, from which point it benefits from the increased memory speed.

    Quicksort was rescued by implementing a sort pragma to control aspects of the sort. The stable subpragma forces stable behaviour, regardless of algorithm. The _quicksort and _mergesort subpragmas are heavy-handed ways to select the underlying implementation. The leading _ is a reminder that these subpragmas may not survive beyond 5.8. More appropriate mechanisms for selecting the implementation exist, but they wouldn't have arrived in time to save quicksort.

  • Hashes now use Bob Jenkins "One-at-a-Time" hashing key algorithm ( http://burtleburtle.net/bob/hash/doobs.html ). This algorithm is reasonably fast while producing a much better spread of values than the old hashing algorithm (originally by Chris Torek, later tweaked by Ilya Zakharevich). Hash values output from the algorithm on a hash of all 3-char printable ASCII keys comes much closer to passing the DIEHARD random number generation tests. According to perlbench, this change has not affected the overall speed of Perl.

  • unshift() should now be noticeably faster.

    unshift()は目立つほど速くなったはずです。

Installation and Configuration Improvements

インストールのコンフィグレーションの改善点

Generic Improvements

全般的な改善点

  • INSTALL now explains how you can configure Perl to use 64-bit integers even on non-64-bit platforms.

  • Policy.sh policy change: if you are reusing a Policy.sh file (see INSTALL) and you use Configure -Dprefix=/foo/bar and in the old Policy $prefix eq $siteprefix and $prefix eq $vendorprefix, all of them will now be changed to the new prefix, /foo/bar. (Previously only $prefix changed.) If you do not like this new behaviour, specify prefix, siteprefix, and vendorprefix explicitly.

  • A new optional location for Perl libraries, otherlibdirs, is available. It can be used for example for vendor add-ons without disturbing Perl's own library directories.

  • In many platforms, the vendor-supplied 'cc' is too stripped-down to build Perl (basically, 'cc' doesn't do ANSI C). If this seems to be the case and 'cc' does not seem to be the GNU C compiler 'gcc', an automatic attempt is made to find and use 'gcc' instead.

  • gcc needs to closely track the operating system release to avoid build problems. If Configure finds that gcc was built for a different operating system release than is running, it now gives a clearly visible warning that there may be trouble ahead.

  • Since Perl 5.8 is not binary-compatible with previous releases of Perl, Configure no longer suggests including the 5.005 modules in @INC.

  • Configure -S can now run non-interactively. [561]

  • Configure support for pdp11-style memory models has been removed due to obsolescence. [561]

  • configure.gnu now works with options with whitespace in them.

  • installperl now outputs everything to STDERR.

  • Because PerlIO is now the default on most platforms, "-perlio" doesn't get appended to the $Config{archname} (also known as $^O) anymore. Instead, if you explicitly choose not to use perlio (Configure command line option -Uuseperlio), you will get "-stdio" appended.

  • Another change related to the architecture name is that "-64all" (-Duse64bitall, or "maximally 64-bit") is appended only if your pointers are 64 bits wide. (To be exact, the use64bitall is ignored.)

  • In AFS installations, one can configure the root of the AFS to be somewhere else than the default /afs by using the Configure parameter -Dafsroot=/some/where/else.

  • APPLLIB_EXP, a lesser-known configuration-time definition, has been documented. It can be used to prepend site-specific directories to Perl's default search path (@INC); see INSTALL for information.

  • The version of Berkeley DB used when the Perl (and, presumably, the DB_File extension) was built is now available as @Config{qw(db_version_major db_version_minor db_version_patch)} from Perl and as DB_VERSION_MAJOR_CFG DB_VERSION_MINOR_CFG DB_VERSION_PATCH_CFG from C.

  • Building Berkeley DB3 for compatibility modes for DB, NDBM, and ODBM has been documented in INSTALL.

  • If you have CPAN access (either network or a local copy such as a CD-ROM) you can during specify extra modules to Configure to build and install with Perl using the -Dextras=... option. See INSTALL for more details.

  • In addition to config.over, a new override file, config.arch, is available. This file is supposed to be used by hints file writers for architecture-wide changes (as opposed to config.over which is for site-wide changes).

  • If your file system supports symbolic links, you can build Perl outside of the source directory by

            mkdir /tmp/perl/build/directory
            cd /tmp/perl/build/directory
            sh /path/to/perl/source/Configure -Dmksymlinks ...

    This will create in /tmp/perl/build/directory a tree of symbolic links pointing to files in /path/to/perl/source. The original files are left unaffected. After Configure has finished, you can just say

            make all test

    and Perl will be built and tested, all in /tmp/perl/build/directory. [561]

  • For Perl developers, several new make targets for profiling and debugging have been added; see perlhack.

    • Use of the gprof tool to profile Perl has been documented in perlhack. There is a make target called "perl.gprof" for generating a gprofiled Perl executable.

    • If you have GCC 3, there is a make target called "perl.gcov" for creating a gcoved Perl executable for coverage analysis. See perlhack.

    • If you are on IRIX or Tru64 platforms, new profiling/debugging options have been added; see perlhack for more information about pixie and Third Degree.

  • Guidelines of how to construct minimal Perl installations have been added to INSTALL.

  • The Thread extension is now not built at all under ithreads (Configure -Duseithreads) because it wouldn't work anyway (the Thread extension requires being Configured with -Duse5005threads).

    Note that the 5.005 threads are unsupported and deprecated: if you have code written for the old threads you should migrate it to the new ithreads model.

  • The Gconvert macro ($Config{d_Gconvert}) used by perl for stringifying floating-point numbers is now more picky about using sprintf %.*g rules for the conversion. Some platforms that used to use gcvt may now resort to the slower sprintf.

  • The obsolete method of making a special (e.g., debugging) flavor of perl by saying

            make LIBPERL=libperld.a

    has been removed. Use -DDEBUGGING instead.

New Or Improved Platforms

新しい、もしくは改善されたプラットフォーム

For the list of platforms known to support Perl, see "Supported Platforms" in perlport.

  • AIX dynamic loading should be now better supported.

  • AIX should now work better with gcc, threads, and 64-bitness. Also the long doubles support in AIX should be better now. See perlaix.

  • AtheOS ( http://www.atheos.cx/ ) is a new platform.

  • BeOS has been reclaimed.

  • The DG/UX platform now supports 5.005-style threads. See perldgux.

  • The DYNIX/ptx platform (also known as dynixptx) is supported at or near osvers 4.5.2.

  • EBCDIC platforms (z/OS (also known as OS/390), POSIX-BC, and VM/ESA) have been regained. Many test suite tests still fail and the co-existence of Unicode and EBCDIC isn't quite settled, but the situation is much better than with Perl 5.6. See perlos390, perlbs2000 (for POSIX-BC), and perlvmesa for more information.

  • Building perl with -Duseithreads or -Duse5005threads now works under HP-UX 10.20 (previously it only worked under 10.30 or later). You will need a thread library package installed. See README.hpux. [561]

  • Mac OS Classic is now supported in the mainstream source package (MacPerl has of course been available since perl 5.004 but now the source code bases of standard Perl and MacPerl have been synchronised) [561]

  • Mac OS X (or Darwin) should now be able to build Perl even on HFS+ filesystems. (The case-insensitivity used to confuse the Perl build process.)

  • NCR MP-RAS is now supported. [561]

  • All the NetBSD specific patches (except for the installation specific ones) have been merged back to the main distribution.

  • NetWare from Novell is now supported. See perlnetware.

  • NonStop-UX is now supported. [561]

  • NEC SUPER-UX is now supported.

  • All the OpenBSD specific patches (except for the installation specific ones) have been merged back to the main distribution.

  • Perl has been tested with the GNU pth userlevel thread package ( http://www.gnu.org/software/pth/pth.html ). All thread tests of Perl now work, but not without adding some yield()s to the tests, so while pth (and other userlevel thread implementations) can be considered to be "working" with Perl ithreads, keep in mind the possible non-preemptability of the underlying thread implementation.

  • Stratus VOS is now supported using Perl's native build method (Configure). This is the recommended method to build Perl on VOS. The older methods, which build miniperl, are still available. See perlvos. [561+]

  • The Amdahl UTS UNIX mainframe platform is now supported. [561]

  • WinCE is now supported. See perlce.

  • z/OS (formerly known as OS/390, formerly known as MVS OE) now has support for dynamic loading. This is not selected by default, however, you must specify -Dusedl in the arguments of Configure. [561]

Selected Bug Fixes

バグフィックスの抜粋

Numerous memory leaks and uninitialized memory accesses have been hunted down. Most importantly, anonymous subs used to leak quite a bit. [561]

  • The autouse pragma didn't work for Multi::Part::Function::Names.

  • caller() could cause core dumps in certain situations. Carp was sometimes affected by this problem. In particular, caller() now returns a subroutine name of (unknown) for subroutines that have been removed from the symbol table.

  • chop(@list) in list context returned the characters chopped in reverse order. This has been reversed to be in the right order. [561]

  • Configure no longer includes the DBM libraries (dbm, gdbm, db, ndbm) when building the Perl binary. The only exception to this is SunOS 4.x, which needs them. [561]

  • The behaviour of non-decimal but numeric string constants such as "0x23" was platform-dependent: in some platforms that was seen as 35, in some as 0, in some as a floating point number (don't ask). This was caused by Perl's using the operating system libraries in a situation where the result of the string to number conversion is undefined: now Perl consistently handles such strings as zero in numeric contexts.

  • The order of DESTROYs has been made more predictable.

  • Perl 5.6.0 could emit spurious warnings about redefinition of dl_error() when statically building extensions into perl. This has been corrected. [561]

  • dprofpp -R didn't work.

  • *foo{FORMAT} now works.

  • Infinity is now recognized as a number.

  • UNIVERSAL::isa no longer caches methods incorrectly. (This broke the Tk extension with 5.6.0.) [561]

  • Lexicals I: lexicals outside an eval "" weren't resolved correctly inside a subroutine definition inside the eval "" if they were not already referenced in the top level of the eval""ed code.

  • Lexicals II: lexicals leaked at file scope into subroutines that were declared before the lexicals.

  • Lexical warnings now propagating correctly between scopes and into eval "...".

  • use warnings qw(FATAL all) did not work as intended. This has been corrected. [561]

  • warnings::enabled() now reports the state of $^W correctly if the caller isn't using lexical warnings. [561]

  • Line renumbering with eval and #line now works. [561]

  • Fixed numerous memory leaks, especially in eval "".

  • Localised tied variables no longer leak memory

        use Tie::Hash;
        tie my %tied_hash => 'Tie::StdHash';
    
        ...
    
        # Used to leak memory every time local() was called;
        # in a loop, this added up.
        local($tied_hash{Foo}) = 1;
  • Localised hash elements (and %ENV) are correctly unlocalised to not exist, if they didn't before they were localised.

        use Tie::Hash;
        tie my %tied_hash => 'Tie::StdHash';
    
        ...
    
        # Nothing has set the FOO element so far
    
        { local $tied_hash{FOO} = 'Bar' }
    
        # This used to print, but not now.
        print "exists!\n" if exists $tied_hash{FOO};

    As a side effect of this fix, tied hash interfaces must define the EXISTS and DELETE methods.

  • mkdir() now ignores trailing slashes in the directory name, as mandated by POSIX.

  • Some versions of glibc have a broken modfl(). This affects builds with -Duselongdouble. This version of Perl detects this brokenness and has a workaround for it. The glibc release 2.2.2 is known to have fixed the modfl() bug.

  • Modulus of unsigned numbers now works (4063328477 % 65535 used to return 27406, instead of 27047). [561]

  • Some "not a number" warnings introduced in 5.6.0 eliminated to be more compatible with 5.005. Infinity is now recognised as a number. [561]

  • Numeric conversions did not recognize changes in the string value properly in certain circumstances. [561]

  • Attributes (such as :shared) didn't work with our().

  • our() variables will not cause bogus "Variable will not stay shared" warnings. [561]

  • "our" variables of the same name declared in two sibling blocks resulted in bogus warnings about "redeclaration" of the variables. The problem has been corrected. [561]

  • pack "Z" now correctly terminates the string with "\0".

  • Fix password routines which in some shadow password platforms (e.g. HP-UX) caused getpwent() to return every other entry.

  • The PERL5OPT environment variable (for passing command line arguments to Perl) didn't work for more than a single group of options. [561]

  • PERL5OPT with embedded spaces didn't work.

  • printf() no longer resets the numeric locale to "C".

  • qw(a\\b) now parses correctly as 'a\\b': that is, as three characters, not four. [561]

  • pos() did not return the correct value within s///ge in earlier versions. This is now handled correctly. [561]

  • Printing quads (64-bit integers) with printf/sprintf now works without the q L ll prefixes (assuming you are on a quad-capable platform).

  • Regular expressions on references and overloaded scalars now work. [561+]

  • Right-hand side magic (GMAGIC) could in many cases such as string concatenation be invoked too many times.

  • scalar() now forces scalar context even when used in void context.

  • SOCKS support is now much more robust.

  • sort() arguments are now compiled in the right wantarray context (they were accidentally using the context of the sort() itself). The comparison block is now run in scalar context, and the arguments to be sorted are always provided list context. [561]

  • Changed the POSIX character class [[:space:]] to include the (very rarely used) vertical tab character. Added a new POSIX-ish character class [[:blank:]] which stands for horizontal whitespace (currently, the space and the tab).

  • The tainting behaviour of sprintf() has been rationalized. It does not taint the result of floating point formats anymore, making the behaviour consistent with that of string interpolation. [561]

  • Some cases of inconsistent taint propagation (such as within hash values) have been fixed.

  • The RE engine found in Perl 5.6.0 accidentally pessimised certain kinds of simple pattern matches. These are now handled better. [561]

  • Regular expression debug output (whether through use re 'debug' or via -Dr) now looks better. [561]

  • Multi-line matches like "a\nxb\n" =~ /(?!\A)x/m were flawed. The bug has been fixed. [561]

  • Use of $& could trigger a core dump under some situations. This is now avoided. [561]

  • The regular expression captured submatches ($1, $2, ...) are now more consistently unset if the match fails, instead of leaving false data lying around in them. [561]

  • readline() on files opened in "slurp" mode could return an extra "" (blank line) at the end in certain situations. This has been corrected. [561]

  • Autovivification of symbolic references of special variables described in perlvar (as in ${$num}) was accidentally disabled. This works again now. [561]

  • Sys::Syslog ignored the LOG_AUTH constant.

  • $AUTOLOAD, sort(), lock(), and spawning subprocesses in multiple threads simultaneously are now thread-safe.

  • Tie::Array's SPLICE method was broken.

  • Allow a read-only string on the left-hand side of a non-modifying tr///.

  • If STDERR is tied, warnings caused by warn and die now correctly pass to it.

  • Several Unicode fixes.

    • BOMs (byte order marks) at the beginning of Perl files (scripts, modules) should now be transparently skipped. UTF-16 and UCS-2 encoded Perl files should now be read correctly.

    • The character tables have been updated to Unicode 3.2.0.

    • Comparing with utf8 data does not magically upgrade non-utf8 data into utf8. (This was a problem for example if you were mixing data from I/O and Unicode data: your output might have got magically encoded as UTF-8.)

    • Generating illegal Unicode code points such as U+FFFE, or the UTF-16 surrogates, now also generates an optional warning.

    • IsAlnum, IsAlpha, and IsWord now match titlecase.

    • Concatenation with the . operator or via variable interpolation, eq, substr, reverse, quotemeta, the x operator, substitution with s///, single-quoted UTF8, should now work.

    • The tr/// operator now works. Note that the tr///CU functionality has been removed (but see pack('U0', ...)).

    • eval "v200" now works.

    • Perl 5.6.0 parsed m/\x{ab}/ incorrectly, leading to spurious warnings. This has been corrected. [561]

    • Zero entries were missing from the Unicode classes such as IsDigit.

  • Large unsigned numbers (those above 2**31) could sometimes lose their unsignedness, causing bogus results in arithmetic operations. [561]

  • The Perl parser has been stress tested using both random input and Markov chain input and the few found crashes and lockups have been fixed.

Platform Specific Changes and Fixes

プラットフォームに特化した変更と改善点

  • BSDI 4.*

    Perl now works on post-4.0 BSD/OSes.

  • All BSDs

    Setting $0 now works (as much as possible; see perlvar for details).

  • Cygwin

    Numerous updates; currently synchronised with Cygwin 1.3.10.

  • Previously DYNIX/ptx had problems in its Configure probe for non-blocking I/O.

  • EPOC

    EPOC now better supported. See README.epoc. [561]

  • FreeBSD 3.*

    Perl now works on post-3.0 FreeBSDs.

  • HP-UX

    README.hpux updated; Configure -Duse64bitall now works; now uses HP-UX malloc instead of Perl malloc.

  • IRIX

    Numerous compilation flag and hint enhancements; accidental mixing of 32-bit and 64-bit libraries (a doomed attempt) made much harder.

  • Linux

    • Long doubles should now work (see INSTALL). [561]

    • Linux previously had problems related to sockaddrlen when using accept(), recvfrom() (in Perl: recv()), getpeername(), and getsockname().

  • Mac OS Classic

    Compilation of the standard Perl distribution in Mac OS Classic should now work if you have the Metrowerks development environment and the missing Mac-specific toolkit bits. Contact the macperl mailing list for details.

  • MPE/iX

    MPE/iX update after Perl 5.6.0. See README.mpeix. [561]

  • NetBSD/threads: try installing the GNU pth (should be in the packages collection, or http://www.gnu.org/software/pth/), and Configure with -Duseithreads.

  • NetBSD/sparc

    Perl now works on NetBSD/sparc.

  • OS/2

    Now works with usethreads (see INSTALL). [561]

  • Solaris

    64-bitness using the Sun Workshop compiler now works.

  • Stratus VOS

    The native build method requires at least VOS Release 14.5.0 and GNU C++/GNU Tools 2.0.1 or later. The Perl pack function now maps overflowed values to +infinity and underflowed values to -infinity.

  • Tru64 (aka Digital UNIX, aka DEC OSF/1)

    The operating system version letter now recorded in $Config{osvers}. Allow compiling with gcc (previously explicitly forbidden). Compiling with gcc still not recommended because buggy code results, even with gcc 2.95.2.

  • Unicos

    Fixed various alignment problems that lead into core dumps either during build or later; no longer dies on math errors at runtime; now using full quad integers (64 bits), previously was using only 46 bit integers for speed.

  • VMS

    See "Socket Extension Dynamic in VMS" and "IEEE-format Floating Point Default on OpenVMS Alpha" for important changes not otherwise listed here.

    chdir() now works better despite a CRT bug; now works with MULTIPLICITY (see INSTALL); now works with Perl's malloc.

    The tainting of %ENV elements via keys or values was previously unimplemented. It now works as documented.

    The waitpid emulation has been improved. The worst bug (now fixed) was that a pid of -1 would cause a wildcard search of all processes on the system.

    POSIX-style signals are now emulated much better on VMS versions prior to 7.0.

    The system function and backticks operator have improved functionality and better error handling. [561]

    File access tests now use current process privileges rather than the user's default privileges, which could sometimes result in a mismatch between reported access and actual access. This improvement is only available on VMS v6.0 and later.

    There is a new kill implementation based on sys$sigprc that allows older VMS systems (pre-7.0) to use kill to send signals rather than simply force exit. This implementation also allows later systems to call kill from within a signal handler.

    Iterative logical name translations are now limited to 10 iterations in imitation of SHOW LOGICAL and other OpenVMS facilities.

  • Windows

    • Signal handling now works better than it used to. It is now implemented using a Windows message loop, and is therefore less prone to random crashes.

    • fork() emulation is now more robust, but still continues to have a few esoteric bugs and caveats. See perlfork for details. [561+]

    • A failed (pseudo)fork now returns undef and sets errno to EAGAIN. [561]

    • The following modules now work on Windows:

          ExtUtils::Embed         [561]
          IO::Pipe
          IO::Poll
          Net::Ping
    • IO::File::new_tmpfile() is no longer limited to 32767 invocations per-process.

    • Better chdir() return value for a non-existent directory.

    • Compiling perl using the 64-bit Platform SDK tools is now supported.

    • The Win32::SetChildShowWindow() builtin can be used to control the visibility of windows created by child processes. See Win32 for details.

    • Non-blocking waits for child processes (or pseudo-processes) are supported via waitpid($pid, &POSIX::WNOHANG).

    • The behavior of system() with multiple arguments has been rationalized. Each unquoted argument will be automatically quoted to protect whitespace, and any existing whitespace in the arguments will be preserved. This improves the portability of system(@args) by avoiding the need for Windows cmd shell specific quoting in perl programs.

      Note that this means that some scripts that may have relied on earlier buggy behavior may no longer work correctly. For example, system("nmake /nologo", @args) will now attempt to run the file nmake /nologo and will fail when such a file isn't found. On the other hand, perl will now execute code such as system("c:/Program Files/MyApp/foo.exe", @args) correctly.

    • The perl header files no longer suppress common warnings from the Microsoft Visual C++ compiler. This means that additional warnings may now show up when compiling XS code.

    • Borland C++ v5.5 is now a supported compiler that can build Perl. However, the generated binaries continue to be incompatible with those generated by the other supported compilers (GCC and Visual C++). [561]

    • Duping socket handles with open(F, ">&MYSOCK") now works under Windows 9x. [561]

    • Current directory entries in %ENV are now correctly propagated to child processes. [561]

    • New %ENV entries now propagate to subprocesses. [561]

    • Win32::GetCwd() correctly returns C:\ instead of C: when at the drive root. Other bugs in chdir() and Cwd::cwd() have also been fixed. [561]

    • The makefiles now default to the features enabled in ActiveState ActivePerl (a popular Win32 binary distribution). [561]

    • HTML files will now be installed in c:\perl\html instead of c:\perl\lib\pod\html

    • REG_EXPAND_SZ keys are now allowed in registry settings used by perl. [561]

    • Can now send() from all threads, not just the first one. [561]

    • ExtUtils::MakeMaker now uses $ENV{LIB} to search for libraries. [561]

    • Less stack reserved per thread so that more threads can run concurrently. (Still 16M per thread.) [561]

    • File::Spec->tmpdir() now prefers C:/temp over /tmp (works better when perl is running as service).

    • Better UNC path handling under ithreads. [561]

    • wait(), waitpid(), and backticks now return the correct exit status under Windows 9x. [561]

    • A socket handle leak in accept() has been fixed. [561]

New or Changed Diagnostics

新しい、もしくは変更された診断メッセージ

  • The lexical warnings category "deprecated" is no longer a sub-category of the "syntax" category. It is now a top-level category in its own right.

  • All regular expression compilation error messages are now hopefully easier to understand both because the error message now comes before the failed regex and because the point of failure is now clearly marked by a <-- HERE marker.

  • The various "opened only for", "on closed", "never opened" warnings drop the main:: prefix for filehandles in the main package, for example STDIN instead of main::STDIN.

  • The "Unrecognized escape" warning has been extended to include \8, \9, and \_. There is no need to escape any of the \w characters.

  • Two new debugging options have been added: if you have compiled your Perl with debugging, you can use the -DT [561] and -DR options to trace tokenising and to add reference counts to displaying variables, respectively.

  • Several debugger fixes: exit code now reflects the script exit code, condition "0" now treated correctly, the d command now checks line number, $. no longer gets corrupted, and all debugger output now goes correctly to the socket if RemotePort is set. [561]

  • The debugger (perl5db.pl) has been modified to present a more consistent commands interface, via (CommandSet=580). perl5db.t was also added to test the changes, and as a placeholder for further tests.

    See perldebug.

  • The debugger has a new dumpDepth option to control the maximum depth to which nested structures are dumped. The x command has been extended so that x N EXPR dumps out the value of EXPR to a depth of at most N levels.

  • The debugger can now show lexical variables if you have the CPAN module PadWalker installed.

  • If an attempt to use a (non-blessed) reference as an array index is made, a warning is given.

  • push @a; and unshift @a; (with no values to push or unshift) now give a warning. This may be a problem for generated and evaled code.

  • If you try to "pack" in perlfunc a number less than 0 or larger than 255 using the "C" format you will get an optional warning. Similarly for the "c" format and a number less than -128 or more than 127.

  • Certain regex modifiers such as (?o) make sense only if applied to the entire regex. You will get an optional warning if you try to do otherwise.

  • Using arrays or hashes as references (e.g. %foo->{bar} has been deprecated for a while. Now you will get an optional warning.

  • Using sort in scalar context now issues an optional warning. This didn't do anything useful, as the sort was not performed.

Changed Internals

内部の変更点

  • perlapi.pod (a companion to perlguts) now attempts to document the internal API.

  • You can now build a really minimal perl called microperl. Building microperl does not require even running Configure; make -f Makefile.micro should be enough. Beware: microperl makes many assumptions, some of which may be too bold; the resulting executable may crash or otherwise misbehave in wondrous ways. For careful hackers only.

  • Added rsignal(), whichsig(), do_join(), op_clear, op_null, ptr_table_clear(), ptr_table_free(), sv_setref_uv(), and several UTF-8 interfaces to the publicised API. For the full list of the available APIs see perlapi.

  • Made possible to propagate customised exceptions via croak()ing.

  • Now xsubs can have attributes just like subs. (Well, at least the built-in attributes.)

  • dTHR and djSP have been obsoleted; the former removed (because it's a no-op) and the latter replaced with dSP.

  • PERL_OBJECT has been completely removed.

  • The MAGIC constants (e.g. 'P') have been macrofied (e.g. PERL_MAGIC_TIED) for better source code readability and maintainability.

  • The regex compiler now maintains a structure that identifies nodes in the compiled bytecode with the corresponding syntactic features of the original regex expression. The information is attached to the new offsets member of the struct regexp. See perldebguts for more complete information.

  • The C code has been made much more gcc -Wall clean. Some warning messages still remain in some platforms, so if you are compiling with gcc you may see some warnings about dubious practices. The warnings are being worked on.

  • perly.c, sv.c, and sv.h have now been extensively commented.

  • Documentation on how to use the Perl source repository has been added to Porting/repository.pod.

  • There are now several profiling make targets.

Security Vulnerability Closed [561]

This change was already made in 5.7.0 but bears repeating here.) (5.7.0 came out before 5.6.1: the development branch 5.7 released earlier than the maintenance branch 5.6

A potential security vulnerability in the optional suidperl component of Perl was identified in August 2000. suidperl is neither built nor installed by default. As of November 2001 the only known vulnerable platform is Linux, most likely all Linux distributions. CERT and various vendors and distributors have been alerted about the vulnerability. See http://www.cpan.org/src/5.0/sperl-2000-08-05/sperl-2000-08-05.txt for more information.

The problem was caused by Perl trying to report a suspected security exploit attempt using an external program, /bin/mail. On Linux platforms the /bin/mail program had an undocumented feature which when combined with suidperl gave access to a root shell, resulting in a serious compromise instead of reporting the exploit attempt. If you don't have /bin/mail, or if you have 'safe setuid scripts', or if suidperl is not installed, you are safe.

The exploit attempt reporting feature has been completely removed from Perl 5.8.0 (and the maintenance release 5.6.1, and it was removed also from all the Perl 5.7 releases), so that particular vulnerability isn't there anymore. However, further security vulnerabilities are, unfortunately, always possible. The suidperl functionality is most probably going to be removed in Perl 5.10. In any case, suidperl should only be used by security experts who know exactly what they are doing and why they are using suidperl instead of some other solution such as sudo ( see http://www.courtesan.com/sudo/ ).

New Tests

新しいテスト

Several new tests have been added, especially for the lib and ext subsections. There are now about 69 000 individual tests (spread over about 700 test scripts), in the regression suite (5.6.1 has about 11 700 tests, in 258 test scripts) The exact numbers depend on the platform and Perl configuration used. Many of the new tests are of course introduced by the new modules, but still in general Perl is now more thoroughly tested.

Because of the large number of tests, running the regression suite will take considerably longer time than it used to: expect the suite to take up to 4-5 times longer to run than in perl 5.6. On a really fast machine you can hope to finish the suite in about 6-8 minutes (wallclock time).

The tests are now reported in a different order than in earlier Perls. (This happens because the test scripts from under t/lib have been moved to be closer to the library/extension they are testing.)

Known Problems

既知の問題

AIX

  • If using the AIX native make command, instead of just "make" issue "make all". In some setups the former has been known to spuriously also try to run "make install". Alternatively, you may want to use GNU make.

  • In AIX 4.2, Perl extensions that use C++ functions that use statics may have problems in that the statics are not getting initialized. In newer AIX releases, this has been solved by linking Perl with the libC_r library, but unfortunately in AIX 4.2 the said library has an obscure bug where the various functions related to time (such as time() and gettimeofday()) return broken values, and therefore in AIX 4.2 Perl is not linked against libC_r.

  • vac 5.0.0.0 May Produce Buggy Code For Perl

    The AIX C compiler vac version 5.0.0.0 may produce buggy code, resulting in a few random tests failing when run as part of "make test", but when the failing tests are run by hand, they succeed. We suggest upgrading to at least vac version 5.0.1.0, that has been known to compile Perl correctly. "lslpp -L|grep vac.C" will tell you the vac version. See README.aix.

  • If building threaded Perl, you may get compilation warning from pp_sys.c:

      "pp_sys.c", line 4651.39: 1506-280 (W) Function argument assignment between types "unsigned char*" and "const void*" is not allowed.

    This is harmless; it is caused by the getnetbyaddr() and getnetbyaddr_r() having slightly different types for their first argument.

Alpha systems with old gccs fail several tests

If you see op/pack, op/pat, op/regexp, or ext/Storable tests failing in a Linux/alpha or *BSD/Alpha, it's probably time to upgrade your gcc. gccs prior to 2.95.3 are definitely not good enough, and gcc 3.1 may be even better. (RedHat Linux/alpha with gcc 3.1 reported no problems, as did Linux 2.4.18 with gcc 2.95.4.) (In Tru64, it is preferable to use the bundled C compiler.)

AmigaOS

Perl 5.8.0 doesn't build in AmigaOS. It broke at some point during the ithreads work and we could not find Amiga experts to unbreak the problems. Perl 5.6.1 still works for AmigaOS (as does the the 5.7.2 development release).

BeOS

The following tests fail on 5.8.0 Perl in BeOS Personal 5.03:

 t/op/lfs............................FAILED at test 17
 t/op/magic..........................FAILED at test 24
 ext/Fcntl/t/syslfs..................FAILED at test 17
 ext/File/Glob/t/basic...............FAILED at test 3
 ext/POSIX/t/sigaction...............FAILED at test 13
 ext/POSIX/t/waitpid.................FAILED at test 1

See perlbeos (README.beos) for more details.

Cygwin "unable to remap"

For example when building the Tk extension for Cygwin, you may get an error message saying "unable to remap". This is known problem with Cygwin, and a workaround is detailed in here: http://sources.redhat.com/ml/cygwin/2001-12/msg00894.html

Cygwin ndbm tests fail on FAT

One can build but not install (or test the build of) the NDBM_File on FAT filesystems. Installation (or build) on NTFS works fine.

ext/threads/t/libc

If this test fails, it indicates that your libc (C library) is not threadsafe. This particular test stress tests the localtime() call to find out whether it is threadsafe. See perlthrtut for more information.

FreeBSD built with ithreads coredumps reading large directories

This is a known bug in FreeBSD's readdir_r() (see perlfreebsd (README.freebsd)), which hopefully will be fixed in FreeBSD 4.6.

FreeBSD Failing locale Test 117 For ISO 8859-15 Locales

The ISO 8859-15 locales may fail the locale test 117 in FreeBSD. This is caused by the characters \xFF (y with diaeresis) and \xBE (Y with diaeresis) not behaving correctly when being matched case-insensitively. Apparently this problem has been fixed in the latest FreeBSD releases. ( http://www.freebsd.org/cgi/query-pr.cgi?pr=34308 )

IRIX fails ext/List/Util/t/shuffle.t

IRIX with MIPSpro 7.3.1.3m compiler may fail the said List::Util test by dumping core. This seems to be a compiler error since if compiled with gcc no core dump ensues, and no failures on the said test on any other platform.

Modifying $_ Inside for(..)

   for (1..5) { $_++ }

works without complaint. It shouldn't. (You should be able to modify only lvalue elements inside the loops.) You can see the correct behaviour by replacing the 1..5 with 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

mod_perl 1.26 Doesn't Build With Threaded Perl

Use mod_perl 1.27 or higher.

lib/ftmp-security tests warn 'system possibly insecure'

Don't panic. Read the 'make test' section of INSTALL instead.

HP-UX lib/posix Subtest 9 Fails When LP64-Configured

If perl is configured with -Duse64bitall, the successful result of the subtest 10 of lib/posix may arrive before the successful result of the subtest 9, which confuses the test harness so much that it thinks the subtest 9 failed.

Linux with glibc 2.2.5 fails t/op/int subtest #6 with -Duse64bitint

This is a known bug in the glibc 2.2.5 with long long integers. ( http://bugzilla.redhat.com/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=65612 )

Linux With Sfio Fails op/misc Test 48

No known fix.

libwww-perl (LWP) fails base/date #51

Use libwww-perl 5.65 or later.

Mac OS X

Please remember to set your environment variable LC_ALL to "C" (setenv LC_ALL C) before running "make test" to avoid a lot of warnings about the broken locales of Mac OS X.

The following tests are known to fail in Mac OS X 10.1.5 because of buggy (old) implementations of Berkeley DB included in Mac OS X:

 Failed Test                 Stat Wstat Total Fail  Failed  List of Failed
 -------------------------------------------------------------------------
 ../ext/DB_File/t/db-btree.t    0    11    ??   ??       %  ??
 ../ext/DB_File/t/db-recno.t              149    3   2.01%  61 63 65

If you are building on a UFS partition, you will also probably see t/op/stat.t subtest #9 fail. This is caused by Darwin's UFS not supporting inode change time.

Also the ext/POSIX/t/posix.t subtest #10 fails but it is skipped for now because the failure is Apple's fault, not Perl's (blocked signals are lost).

If you Configure with ithreads, ext/threads/t/libc.t will fail. Again, this is not Perl's fault-- the libc of Mac OS X is not threadsafe (in this particular test, the localtime() call is found to be threadunsafe.)

OS/2 Test Failures

The following tests are known to fail on OS/2 (for clarity only the failures are shown, not the full error messages):

 t/io/utf8............................FAILED at test 19
 t/op/grent...........................FAILED at test 2
 t/op/pwent...........................FAILED at test 1
 t/lib/os2_base.......................FAILED at test 13
 t/lib/os2_process....................FAILED at test 10
 t/lib/os2_process_kid................FAILED at test 10
 t/lib/rx_cmprt.......................FAILED at test 16
 ext/DB_File/t/db-btree...............FAILED at test 0
 ext/DB_File/t/db-hash................FAILED at test 0
 ext/DB_File/t/db-recno...............FAILED at test 0
 lib/ExtUtils/t/basic.................FAILED at test 14
 lib/ExtUtils/t/Constant..............FAILED at test 4
 lib/Memoize/t/errors.................FAILED at test 4

op/sprintf tests 91, 129, and 130

The op/sprintf tests 91, 129, and 130 are known to fail on some platforms. Examples include any platform using sfio, and Compaq/Tandem's NonStop-UX.

Test 91 is known to fail on QNX6 (nto), because sprintf '%e',0 incorrectly produces 0.000000e+0 instead of 0.000000e+00.

For tests 129 and 130, the failing platforms do not comply with the ANSI C Standard: lines 19ff on page 134 of ANSI X3.159 1989, to be exact. (They produce something other than "1" and "-1" when formatting 0.6 and -0.6 using the printf format "%.0f"; most often, they produce "0" and "-0".)

Solaris 2.5

In case you are still using Solaris 2.5 (aka SunOS 5.5), you may experience failures (the test core dumping) in lib/locale.t. The suggested cure is to upgrade your Solaris.

Solaris x86 Fails Tests With -Duse64bitint

The following tests are known to fail in Solaris x86 with Perl configured to use 64 bit integers:

 ext/Data/Dumper/t/dumper.............FAILED at test 268
 ext/Devel/Peek/Peek..................FAILED at test 7

SUPER-UX (NEC SX)

The following tests are known to fail on SUPER-UX:

 op/64bitint...........................FAILED tests 29-30, 32-33, 35-36
 op/arith..............................FAILED tests 128-130
 op/pack...............................FAILED tests 25-5625
 op/pow................................
 op/taint..............................# msgsnd failed
 ../ext/IO/lib/IO/t/io_poll............FAILED tests 3-4
 ../ext/IPC/SysV/ipcsysv...............FAILED tests 2, 5-6
 ../ext/IPC/SysV/t/msg.................FAILED tests 2, 4-6
 ../ext/Socket/socketpair..............FAILED tests 12
 ../lib/IPC/SysV.......................FAILED tests 2, 5-6
 ../lib/warnings.......................FAILED tests 115-116, 118-119

The op/pack failure ("Cannot compress negative numbers at op/pack.t line 126") is serious but as of yet unsolved. It points at some problems with the signedness handling of the C compiler, as do the 64bitint, arith, and pow failures. Most of the rest point at problems with SysV IPC.

PDL failing some tests

Use PDL 2.3.4 or later.

Term::ReadKey not working on Win32

Use Term::ReadKey 2.20 or later.

Failure of Thread (5.005-style) tests

Note that support for 5.005-style threading is deprecated, experimental and practically unsupported. In 5.10, it is expected to be removed. You should migrate your code to ithreads.

5.005スタイルでのスレッド操作は非推奨事項になり、 試験的にではありますがほとんどサポート外となったと言うことを 覚えておいて下さい。5.10では、削除されることが期待されています。 あなたのコードはithreadに移行すべきです。

The following tests are known to fail due to fundamental problems in the 5.005 threading implementation. These are not new failures--Perl 5.005_0x has the same bugs, but didn't have these tests.

以下のテストは5.005のスレッド操作の実行における根本的な問題の結果失敗する ことが知られています。これらは新しい失敗事例ではありません--Perl5.005_0xでも 同じバグを持っていたのですが、テストされなかったのです。

 ../ext/B/t/xref.t                    255 65280    14   12  85.71%  3-14
 ../ext/List/Util/t/first.t           255 65280     7    4  57.14%  2 5-7
 ../lib/English.t                       2   512    54    2   3.70%  2-3
 ../lib/FileCache.t                                 5    1  20.00%  5
 ../lib/Filter/Simple/t/data.t                      6    3  50.00%  1-3
 ../lib/Filter/Simple/t/filter_only.                9    3  33.33%  1-2 5
 ../lib/Math/BigInt/t/bare_mbf.t                 1627    4   0.25%  8 11 1626-1627
 ../lib/Math/BigInt/t/bigfltpm.t                 1629    4   0.25%  10 13 1628-
                                                                    1629
 ../lib/Math/BigInt/t/sub_mbf.t                  1633    4   0.24%  8 11 1632-1633
 ../lib/Math/BigInt/t/with_sub.t                 1628    4   0.25%  9 12 1627-1628
 ../lib/Tie/File/t/31_autodefer.t     255 65280    65   32  49.23%  34-65
 ../lib/autouse.t                                  10    1  10.00%  4
 op/flip.t                                         15    1   6.67%  15

These failures are unlikely to get fixed as 5.005-style threads are considered fundamentally broken. (Basically what happens is that competing threads can corrupt shared global state, one good example being regular expression engine's state.)

これらの失敗は5.005スタイルのスレッドの根本的な部分が破綻していると 見なされているため、修正される見込みは薄いです。(基本的に起こることとしては、 は矛盾したスレッドがグローバルに共有された状態を腐敗させる可能性が あります。一つの良い例としては正規表現エンジンの状態です。)

Timing problems

タイミングの問題

The following tests may fail intermittently because of timing problems, for example if the system is heavily loaded.

以降のテストはタイミングの問題によって断続的に失敗するかも知れません。 例えばシステムに大きな負荷がかかっている時です。

    t/op/alarm.t
    ext/Time/HiRes/HiRes.t
    lib/Benchmark.t
    lib/Memoize/t/expmod_t.t
    lib/Memoize/t/speed.t

In case of failure please try running them manually, for example

失敗する場合は手作業で起動するようにして下さい。例えば

    ./perl -Ilib ext/Time/HiRes/HiRes.t

Unicode in package/class and subroutine names does not work

package/classとサブルーチン名の中でUnicodeは使えません

One can have Unicode in identifier names, but not in package/class or subroutine names. While some limited functionality towards this does exist as of Perl 5.8.0, that is more accidental than designed; use of Unicode for the said purposes is unsupported.

識別名をつける際にUnicodeを用いることは可能ですが、package/class又は サブルーチンの名前に関しては不可能です。これに対する制限が存在するのは Perl5.8.0からですが、意図的と言うよりもむしろ偶発的なものであると言えます。; つまり、これまでに述べた目的でのUnicodeの使用に関してはサポートされません。

One reason of this unfinishedness is its (currently) inherent unportability: since both package names and subroutine names may need to be mapped to file and directory names, the Unicode capability of the filesystem becomes important-- and there unfortunately aren't portable answers.

これが未完成である一つの理由としては固有の携帯性(現時点においての)が 無くなってしまうからです: パッケージとサブルーチンの名前はファイルと ディレクトリの名前と対応させる必要があるため、ファイルシステムのUnicode能力が 重要となります。そして、不幸なことに携帯性を重視した答えと言うものは 存在しないのです。

UNICOS/mk

  • During Configure, the test

        Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...

    will probably fail with error messages like

        CC-20 cc: ERROR File = try.c, Line = 3
          The identifier "bad" is undefined.
    
          bad switch yylook 79bad switch yylook 79bad switch yylook 79bad switch yylook 79#ifdef A29K
          ^
    
        CC-65 cc: ERROR File = try.c, Line = 3
          A semicolon is expected at this point.

    This is caused by a bug in the awk utility of UNICOS/mk. You can ignore the error, but it does cause a slight problem: you cannot fully benefit from the h2ph utility (see h2ph) that can be used to convert C headers to Perl libraries, mainly used to be able to access from Perl the constants defined using C preprocessor, cpp. Because of the above error, parts of the converted headers will be invisible. Luckily, these days the need for h2ph is rare.

  • If building Perl with interpreter threads (ithreads), the getgrent(), getgrnam(), and getgrgid() functions cannot return the list of the group members due to a bug in the multithreaded support of UNICOS/mk. What this means is that in list context the functions will return only three values, not four.

UTS

There are a few known test failures, see perluts (README.uts).

少しではありますがテストの失敗があります。perluts (README>uts)を 御覧下さい。

VOS (Stratus)

When Perl is built using the native build process on VOS Release 14.5.0 and GNU C++/GNU Tools 2.0.1, all attempted tests either pass or result in TODO (ignored) failures.

VMS

There should be no reported test failures with a default configuration, though there are a number of tests marked TODO that point to areas needing further debugging and/or porting work.

Win32

In multi-CPU boxes, there are some problems with the I/O buffering: some output may appear twice.

XML::Parser not working

Use XML::Parser 2.31 or later.

z/OS (OS/390)

z/OS has rather many test failures but the situation is actually better than it was in 5.6.0; it's just that so many new modules and tests have been added.

 Failed Test                   Stat Wstat Total Fail  Failed  List of Failed
 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 ../ext/Data/Dumper/t/dumper.t              357    8   2.24%  311 314 325 327
                                                              331 333 337 339
 ../ext/IO/lib/IO/t/io_unix.t                 5    4  80.00%  2-5
 ../ext/Storable/t/downgrade.t   12  3072   169   12   7.10%  14-15 46-47 78-79
                                                              110-111 150 161
 ../lib/ExtUtils/t/Constant.t   121 30976    48   48 100.00%  1-48
 ../lib/ExtUtils/t/Embed.t                    9    9 100.00%  1-9
 op/pat.t                         0    11   922  283  30.69%  640-922
 op/sprintf.t                               224    3   1.34%  98 100 136
 op/tr.t                                     97    5   5.15%  63 71-74
 uni/fold.t                                 780    6   0.77%  61 169 196 661
                                                              710-711

The failures in dumper.t and downgrade.t are problems in the tests, those in io_unix and sprintf are problems in the USS (UDP sockets and printf formats). The pat, tr, and fold failures are genuine Perl problems caused by EBCDIC (and in the pat and fold cases, combining that with Unicode). The Constant and Embed are probably problems in the tests (since they test Perl's ability to build extensions, and that seems to be working reasonably well.)

Localising Tied Arrays and Hashes Is Broken

localのtieされた配列のハッシュは破壊されます

    local %tied_array;

doesn't work as one would expect: the old value is restored incorrectly. This will be changed in a future release, but we don't know yet what the new semantics will exactly be. In any case, the change will break existing code that relies on the current (ill-defined) semantics, so just avoid doing this in general.

うまく働かず、次のような動作になることでしょう: 古い値が正しく復元されません。 これは将来のリリースでは変更されるでしょうが、我々は現在のところどの新しい セマンティクスが正確であるかを見出していません。どのような場合でも、 変更が現在の(間違った定義の)セマンティクスに依存する既存のコードを 破壊します。よって、通常はとにかくこうなることを回避してください。

Self-tying Problems

Self-tying of arrays and hashes is broken in rather deep and hard-to-fix ways. As a stop-gap measure to avoid people from getting frustrated at the mysterious results (core dumps, most often), it is forbidden for now (you will get a fatal error even from an attempt).

A change to self-tying of globs has caused them to be recursively referenced (see: "Two-Phased Garbage Collection" in perlobj). You will now need an explicit untie to destroy a self-tied glob. This behaviour may be fixed at a later date.

Self-tying of scalars and IO thingies works.

Tied/Magical Array/Hash Elements Do Not Autovivify

For normal arrays $foo = \$bar[1] will assign undef to $bar[1] (assuming that it didn't exist before), but for tied/magical arrays and hashes such autovivification does not happen because there is currently no way to catch the reference creation. The same problem affects slicing over non-existent indices/keys of a tied/magical array/hash.

Building Extensions Can Fail Because Of Largefiles

Some extensions like mod_perl are known to have issues with `largefiles', a change brought by Perl 5.6.0 in which file offsets default to 64 bits wide, where supported. Modules may fail to compile at all, or they may compile and work incorrectly. Currently, there is no good solution for the problem, but Configure now provides appropriate non-largefile ccflags, ldflags, libswanted, and libs in the %Config hash (e.g., $Config{ccflags_nolargefiles}) so the extensions that are having problems can try configuring themselves without the largefileness. This is admittedly not a clean solution, and the solution may not even work at all. One potential failure is whether one can (or, if one can, whether it's a good idea to) link together at all binaries with different ideas about file offsets; all this is platform-dependent.

Unicode Support on EBCDIC Still Spotty

Though mostly working, Unicode support still has problem spots on EBCDIC platforms. One such known spot are the \p{} and \P{} regular expression constructs for code points less than 256: the pP are testing for Unicode code points, not knowing about EBCDIC.

The Compiler Suite Is Still Very Experimental

The compiler suite is slowly getting better but it continues to be highly experimental. Use in production environments is discouraged.

The Long Double Support Is Still Experimental

The ability to configure Perl's numbers to use "long doubles", floating point numbers of hopefully better accuracy, is still experimental. The implementations of long doubles are not yet widespread and the existing implementations are not quite mature or standardised, therefore trying to support them is a rare and moving target. The gain of more precision may also be offset by slowdown in computations (more bits to move around, and the operations are more likely to be executed by less optimised libraries).

Seen In Perl 5.7 But Gone Now

Perl 5.7にはあったが現在無くなってしまったもの

Time::Piece (previously known as Time::Object) was removed because it was felt that it didn't have enough value in it to be a core module. It is still a useful module, though, and is available from the CPAN.

Time::Pieace(以前はTime::Objectとして知られていました)は コアモジュールとして十分な価値を持っていると感じられなかったため 削除されました。それでもなお便利なモジュールですので、CPANから入手可能です。

Perl 5.8 unfortunately does not build anymore on AmigaOS; this broke accidentally at some point. Since there are not that many Amiga developers available, we could not get this fixed and tested in time for 5.8.0. Perl 5.6.1 still works for AmigaOS (as does the the 5.7.2 development release).

Perl 5.8では、不幸なことですが今はもうAmigaOSではビルドされていません;開発の 中断はある時偶然にして起こりました。多くのAmigaの開発者が居なくなって以来 我々は5.8.0のための修正やテストが間に合いませんでした。Perl 5.6.1はまだ AmigaOS上で動作します(開発版である5.7.2はリリースされていますが)。

The PerlIO::Scalar and PerlIO::Via (capitalised) were renamed as PerlIO::scalar and PerlIO::via (all lowercase) just before 5.8.0. The main rationale was to have all core IO layers to have all lowercase names. The "plugins" are named as usual, for example PerlIO::via::QuotedPrint.

PerlIO::ScalarPerlIO::Via(大文字が使われている)は5.8.0で PerlIO::scalarPerlIO::via(全て小文字)に改名されました。 原則としてコアのIOレイヤは全て小文字の名前です。"プラグイン"では 通常PerlIO::via::QuatedPrintのような名前をつけられます。

Reporting Bugs

バグレポート

If you find what you think is a bug, you might check the articles recently posted to the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup and the perl bug database at http://bugs.perl.org/ . There may also be information at http://www.perl.com/ , the Perl Home Page.

もしバグだと思ったら、comp.lang.perl.miscニュースグループに 投稿された最近の記事と、http://bugs.perl.org/にある perl bug databaseを確認してください。 Perlのホームページであるhttp://www.perl.com/にも 情報があるかもしれません。

If you believe you have an unreported bug, please run the perlbug program included with your release. Be sure to trim your bug down to a tiny but sufficient test case. Your bug report, along with the output of perl -V, will be sent off to perlbug@perl.org to be analysed by the Perl porting team.

未報告のバグがあると確信した場合は、あなたが持っている リリースに含まれるperlbugプログラムを実行してください。 きっと、小さいですが十分なテストケースを整えてくれます。 あなたのバグレポートはperl -Vによる出力の他に、 Perl porting teamによって解析されるためにperlbug@perl.orgへ 送信されることでしょう。

SEE ALSO

参考資料

The Changes file for exhaustive details on what changed.

変更点に関する完全な詳細を扱ったChangesファイル。

The INSTALL file for how to build Perl.

インストール方法を扱ったINSTALLファイル。

The README file for general stuff.

一般的な事柄を扱ったREADMEファイル

The Artistic and Copying files for copyright information.

著作権情報を扱ったArtisticファイルとCopyingファイル。

HISTORY

履歴

Written by Jarkko Hietaniemi <jhi@iki.fi>.

Jarkko Hietaniemi <jhi@iki.fi>によって書かれました。